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What are microbes?. helminths. yeast. viruses. cyanobacteria. protozoa. bacteria. algae. mold. Taxonomy. http://www.linnean.org/html/history/linnaeus_biography.htm. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/library/linn/. www.amazon.com. Taxonomy. Plantae. Animalia. Fungi. Protista. Monera.

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What are microbes?

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    1. What are microbes? helminths yeast viruses cyanobacteria protozoa bacteria algae mold

    2. Taxonomy http://www.linnean.org/html/history/linnaeus_biography.htm http://www.nhm.ac.uk/library/linn/

    3. www.amazon.com Taxonomy

    4. Plantae Animalia Fungi Protista Monera Five kingdom system

    5. Encephalitozoan EUBACTERIA EUKARYA Hexamita Valrimorpha Cytophaga Giardia Chlorobium Epulopiscium Bacillus Trichomonas Agrobacterium Synechococcus Physarum E. coli Thermus Trypanosoma Thermomicrobium Riftia Chromatium Thermotoga Euglena Aquifex ARCHAEA Naegleria Entamoeba Haloferax Dictylostelium Methanobacterium Methanospirillum Porphyra Methanococcus Methanosarcina Organisms visible to human eye Thermococcus Paramecium Methanopyros Plants Sulfolobus Fungi Animals Thermoproteus Thermofilum pSL50 pSL4 pSL22 pSL12 pJP78 pJP27 Marine group 1 Three Domain System Black, J.G. (2002) Fig. 9.13

    6. Taxonomical “ranks” after Alcamo Fig. 3.4

    7. OR, underline if handwritten: Enterococcus faecalis • strains? (subspecies) Bacterial nomenclature • Genus + species • e.g.: • Escherichia (genus) coli (species) • Bacillus subtilis • Enterococcus faecalis

    8. Where do bacteria come from? Palaeolyngbya chroococcalean form www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ bacteria/cyanofr.html

    9. Where do bacteria live? • EVERYWHERE! (almost) • humans host 1014 bacterial cells in 1013 human cells! • NOT found inside tissues (of organisms)

    10. www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/ faq.html What do microbes do? • Eat, grow, and divide!! • How to accomplish? • modify metabolism • make toxins • structuralmodifications

    11. Why do we care? • Disease • Agriculture • Food and beverages • Chemicals • Basic research • Biotechnology

    12. micrograph microscope How did microbiology become a science? • Anthony van Leeuwenhoek (late 1600’s)

    13. Spontaneous generation controversy www.darwin.museum.ru/site_bac/ etap/etap2_A.htm

    14. Pasteur & Tyndall end spontaneous generation controversy

    15. Disease transmission? miasma www.ghosthunting.org.uk/ cemetary3.htm

    16. Fracastoro “seeds” of contagion infection delpiano.com/millennium/html/ body_fracastoro.html symptoms courses

    17. Semmelweis www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/ j/e/jel5/micro/art.htm

    18. John Snow www.soi.city.ac.uk/ ~dk708/pg1_1.htm

    19. Germ Theory of Disease

    20. pw1.netcom.com/~aguldo/ agga/bt/txt/bt1899.htm Lister www.umanitoba.ca/.../medicine/ history/lister/anessurg.html Joseph Lister

    21. Robert Koch http://www.vdem.state.va.us/prepare/terrorismtoolkit/anthraxoverview.htm www.robert-koch-stiftung.de/ ziele.html Koch establishes causative link between B. anthracis & anthrax

    22. Suspected microbe must be present in EVERY case of the disease Diseased subjects Microbe not typically found in healthy subjects Koch’s Postulates Must isolate & grow pure culture of microbe Same microbe must be isolated from diseased experimental host Cultured microbe must cause disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible host

    23. Exceptions to Koch’s postulates • Organism can’t be cultured • e.g. Mycobacterium leprae • Combination of pathogens • Ethical considerations

    24. DISEASE Anthrax Gonorrhea Typhoid fever Malaria Tuberculosis Cholera Diphtheria Tetanus Diarrhea Pneumonia Meningitis Gas gangrene CAUSATIVE AGENT Bacillus anthracis Neisseria gonorrhea Salmonella typhi Plasmodium spp. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Vibrio cholera Corynebacterium diphtheriae Clostridium tetani Escherichia coli Streptococcus pneumoniae Neisseria meningitidis Clostridium perfringens YEAR 1867 1879 1884 1880 1882 1883 1883-84 1885-89 1885 1886 1887 1892 “Golden Age” of Microbiology: Late 1800s

    25. What’s included in “microbiology”? Microbiology Basic research microbiology Applied microbiology In relation to disease After Black (2002) Microbiology: Principles & Explorations, 5th Ed. Table 1.2 By kind of organism By process Bacteriology Phycology Mycology Protozoology Parasitology Virology Microbial metabolism Microbial genetics Microbial ecology Immunology Epidemiology Etiology Microbialtaxonomy

    26. What’s included in “microbiology”? Microbiology Basic research microbiology Applied microbiology After Black (2002) Microbiology: Principles & Explorations, 5th Ed. Table 1.2 Disease-related Environmental Industrial Infection control Chemotherapy Environmental microbiology Food/Beverage technology Pharmaceutical microbiology Genetic engineering