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Team Dominate(d?). The Machine. Synopsis. Motorcycles are complex systems, containing many variables beyond what is displayed by standard gauges or rider intuition.

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Team Dominate(d?)

The Machine


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Synopsis

  • Motorcycles are complex systems, containing many variables beyond what is displayed by standard gauges or rider intuition.

  • Understanding of these variables becomes more important in racing situations, where slight changes can significantly alter outcomes.

  • Our goal is to digitally characterize some of these variables, transmit information to an acquisition system, and then interpret them in order to improve motorcycle development and riding techniques.


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Defining un-measured variables

  • The variables we decided to characterize are:

    • Acceleration

    • Deceleration

    • Lateral Acceleration

    • Tire temperature

    • Lean angle

    • Suspension travel

      Although engine speed and velocity are already measured by standard gauges, we decided to also transmit these data values for correlation with the other acquired data.



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Subsystem specifics: Sensors

  • Accelerometer

    • LIS3LV02DQ 3 Axis Accelerometer

      • Cost ~ $40

      • Digital Output- SPI or I2C digital interface

      • +/- 2g acceleration range

      • Small size (21x23mm)

      • 3V power


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Subsystem specifics: Sensors

  • Preferred Accelerometer/Inertial Measurement

    • IMU 5

      • Cost ~ $110

      • Combines 3 axis accelerometer and angle sensor (gyros)

      • Senses Roll and Pitch (Lean angle & wheelie)

      • Senses Acceleration in X, Y, Z axes

      • +/- 3g acceleration range

      • Small size (20x23mm)

      • Analog Output from IMU

      • 3V Power


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Subsystem specifics: Sensors

  • Tire Temperature

    • Omega OS136

      • Cost ~ $175 x 2

      • Non-contact IR temperature sensing

      • Accurate reading range 0o-400o F

      • Reads 7 measurements per second

      • Analog Output 0-5V

      • 12V Power


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Subsystem specifics: Sensors

  • Suspension Travel

    • Sharp IR proximity sensor

      • Cost ~ $12 x 2

      • Measures distance betweenfender and fixed mountedpoint of sensor

      • Analog output

        • 3.1V @ 10cm, 0.4V @ 80cm



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Subsystem specifics: Sensors

  • Engine Speed/Velocity/Throttle Position/Gear Indicator

    • OEM sensors/data decoders – <$100

    • Engine Speed/Velocity Sensor Output

      • Pulse signal - frequencies proportional to speed

    • Throttle Sensor Output

      • Analog output linear with increasing throttle

    • Gear Indicator

      • A known engine speed and velocity can be used to calculate the current gear selection

      • Not accurate while clutch is disengaged

        • Only inaccurate during small fractions of time in race situations.


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Subsystem Specifics: Sensor Communication

  • Analog to Digital Converter

  • Digital signal transmitted over I2C

  • Signal received and processed by Data Handling Unit

  • Transmit digital signal for superior quality over analog

  • Data latches to hold values until next reading from sensor


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Power

  • Power will be derived from the 12 volt DC motorcycle battery

  • Centrally located step down converters will adjust power to 5 and 3 volt supply.

  • A power filter and step down converters will be located on a circuit board near the Data handler


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Subsystem Specifics: Data Handling

  • FPGA Prototype Board

  • I2C Data Inputs

  • RS232 Output

  • Multiplexing ability for sensor selection

  • Soft Core processor emulation



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Subsystem Specifics: Data Transmission

  • RF downlink

    • Xbee-Pro wireless modem

      • RS-232 serial input for downlink communication

      • USB interface to computer base station

      • 2.4 GHz, 115200 bps

      • 100 mW transmit power

      • 1 mile range line of sight

      • 12 channels


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Software

  • We will use Visual C++ for the computer base station

  • Advising from Professor John Hauser (Motorcycle Dynamics Control)

  • Verilog code for bus controller and communication with the data handler


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Parts Cost Analysis

  • Accelerometer/

    Angle Sensor $110

    Tire Temperature $175 x 2

    FPGA Board $300

    Suspension Travel $100

    RF Transmission $110 x 2

    Speed Sensor $20

    PCB boards $33 x 5

    A>D>I2C chip $3.50 x 7

    Total $1290

    Domination $Priceless


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Division of Labor

  • Accelerometer /Bank Angle Sensor (Mr. Keogh and Mr. Pearse)

    • Acquire data

    • Transmit I2C

    • Determine appropriate range for data

  • Data Handler (Mr.Olson and Mr. OConnell)

    • Read I2C data

    • Process data

    • Transmit via RS232

  • Software (Mr.Schreiner)

    • Read data from USB input

    • Convert data to standard units

    • Display data on computer


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Risks

  • Extreme temperature from exhaust and engine

  • Engine and road vibration

  • Physical damage from debris and crash

  • Intricate Dynamics of motion too complex for sensors or analysis


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Contingency Plans

  • Limit number of sensors for time

  • Spare budget for damaged part replacement

  • Dynamics analysis advising from Professor John Hauser (motorcycle dynamics expert)

  • Heat shielding of components

  • Rubber shock and vibration damping mounts