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SAFE FOOD AND WATER. FOOD HAZARDS - 3 types of food hazards: BIOLOGICAL – Responsible for 99% of all food- and waterborne diseases producing food poisoning or food intoxication. Can be due to: Bacteria (germs) or their toxins - cholera, typhoid, E. coli, etc.

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safe food and water


FOOD HAZARDS - 3 types of food hazards:

BIOLOGICAL – Responsible for 99% of all food- and waterborne diseases

producing food poisoning or food intoxication.

Can be due to:

Bacteria (germs) or their toxins - cholera, typhoid, E. coli, etc.

Virus - hepatitis A, polio, rotavirus, etc.

Parasites - amoeba, ascaris, giardia, etc.


Chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides, herbicides


Glass, nails, wood, plastic

fecal transmission of food and waterborne diseases

Fecal Transmission of Food- and Waterborne Diseases





The fecal-oral cycle: Germs go from hands to the mouth, through the

intestines, excreted in the feces (bowel movement) and back on the hands

when a person wipes him- or herself after a bowel movement.

what do germs need to grow

What do germs need to grow ?

1-FOOD AND WATER - High protein foods (meat, poultry, dairy products, etc.) are dangerous foods. Germs cannot grow on dry foods. If water is added bacterial growth explodes.

2-WARMTH - THE DANGER ZONE = +5°C (+40°F) to +63°C (+145°F)

3-TIME - Some bacteria divide every 10 minutes!



the dangerous foods

The " Dangerous Foods "

Those foods where bacteria multiply quickly.

Those which are not cooked before being served.

Precooked, ready to eat foods - Cooked meat, poulty, hot dogs

Milk, cream, dairy products

Raw eggs and products made from eggs (mayonnaise, ice cream)

Shellfish and seafood

Hot and humid climates are more dangerous than cold and dry ones because the

heat and moisture cause foods to spoil more rapidly.

Restaurants and hotels are usually safer than street markets and local food


symptoms of food intoxication

Symptoms of Food Intoxication

DIARRHEA – 4 to 5 watery bowel movements per day.

Usually develops within 6 hours after eating contaminated food or

drinking contaminated water and usually lasts 1-2 days. Longer in

severe cases.

Symptoms may last up to 7 days

and also include:

abdominal cramps

nausea and vomiting

bloating, malaise

Severe food contamination can lead to dysentery and fever above 101°F(38.5°C).

the geography of diarrhea

The Geography of Diarrhea

Diarrhea Risk

Yellow = Low

Orange = Medium

Red = High

High Risk Areas: Developing countries of Latin America, Africa, Middle East and Asia.

Note: Diarrhea can also be a symptom of malaria!

prevention of food and waterborne diseases

Prevention of Food- and Waterborne Diseases


Vaccinations do not protect against all food- and waterborne diseases but provide protection against a certain number of serious illnesses transmitted by food and water: hepatitis A, typhoid, polio.

Even with these vaccinations everyone must follow the advice concerning food and water safety.

prevention of food and waterborne diseases8

Prevention of Food- and Waterborne Diseases

Wash them!!!

Always wash hands with hot water + soap + dry thoroughly

After going to the toilet

Before handling food and in between handling raw and cooked food

After combing hair

After eating

After blowing your nose

After smoking

After handling waste food

After handling refuse

food hygiene in company facilities

Food Hygiene in Company Facilities


One food handler can knock out the entire work force of a rig or

crew within a few days!

The location manager, camp boss, crew chief etc. is responsible for:

- maintaining the standards of food handlers (medically certified

and correctly trained)

- maintaining the standards of food storage and preparation.

food handlers must

Food Handlers must:

Be in good health. If suffering from diarrhea, vomiting or food-borne infections

they should not handle food.

Have clean hands.

Have no infectious diseases. If skin infection, unprotected cut or sore, heavy

cold, ear or eye discharge, food handlers must be removed from the food chain.

When handling food, they must:

Not smoke

Cover their hair with a hairnet

Wear protective clothing

Not wear jewelry (watch, ring, etc.)

Not spit, sneeze or cough on or near food

Not touch their mouth, tongue, nose or eyes

important in the kitchen

Important - In the Kitchen

Check that:

Health and hygiene of food handlers is OK

Food handlers wear clean, protective clothing

Kitchen and equipment are kept clean

Food is kept covered

Food handling is reduced: use tongs,trays plates rather than hands

Raw and cooked foods are always kept separate

Screens are placed on doors and windows to keep out flies and insects

Insects, rodents and pets are not allowed in the kitchen area

Food is correctly stored and correctly conserved

Food quarters are regularly and correctly cleaned

Waste and refuse are rapidly removed

cooking destroys germs

Cooking Destroys Germs!

Food must be cooked thoroughly !

All heat processed foods are bacteria-free.

Heat processed foods are those which are:




food storage

Food Storage

Food must be correctly stored outside of the DANGER ZONE:

storage must be below +5°C (40°F) (refrigerator)

or above +63°C (145°F) (bain marie)

Food must stay as little time as possible during preparation in the DANGER


Do not leave foods at room temperature.

Suitable preservatives, such as salt and sugar, must be used.

Dried foods must not be allowed to absorb moisture.

food storage14

Food Storage

Dry foods must be stored in a location that is:



Well lit Correctly ventilated

Vermin proof

Clean and tidy

Foods must be checked upon delivery.

And stored off the floor on shelves or stainless steel racks.

food storage15

Food Storage

Perishable foods must be placed in the refrigerator.

Refrigerator should operate at or below 5°C (40°F).

A thermometer should be placed in the warmest part of the refrigerator and

checked daily. The refrigerator should be cleaned weekly.

Frozen foods should be transported and stocked in the freezer at -18°C (0°F).

foods must be refused if

Foods must be refused if:

They are delivered in damaged or leaking cartons.

They are delivered in soiled trays.

They have been infested by insects or rodents.

They contain cans that are rusty or bady dented.

They are out of date.

water and beverages

Water and Beverages

  • In many countries you should AVOID:
  • tap water
  • ice cubes – Freezing the water does not
  • make it safe to drink. Ice cubes are often
  • made from tap water.
  • Commercially bottled water is usually safe to drink.
  • Make sure it is served sealed and you observe the opening.
  • When in doubt, use bottled water to also wash teeth.
  • Drinks that have been boiled are safe (tea, coffee, soup).
  • Bottled or canned drinks (fruit juice, carbonated drinks, etc.) are usually safe.
safe or clean water

Safe or " Clean " Water

  • Disinfecting water to obtain safe or " clean " water usually requires one or more of the following:
  • Filtering
  • Boiling – 1 minute kills all germs
    • Boiled water can be used for drinking (let cool), cooking, making ice cubes, brushing teeth, washing fruits and vegetables. It must be used within 24 hours and then either discarded or reboiled unless it has been chemically treated.
  • Chemical treatment – Chlorine, Chlorine + Silver, Iodine

Boiling – the best technique for the traveler

treatment of food and waterborne diseases

Treatment of Food- and Waterborne Diseases

  • The main problem is diarrhea:
  • Certain foods reduce diarrhea – bananas, rice, applesauce, dry toast (BRAT diet)
  • Replace lost fluids – drink " clean " water or commercial rehydration solutions
  • Antimotility medication (ex: Imodium)
  • If diarrhea is severe (more than 8 liquid stools per day) and is associated with fever, bloody stools, repeated vomiting and it continues for more than 3 days => SEE A DOCTOR. An antibiotic will usually be prescribed.
for more information

For More Information:

For more information see the Schlumberger TRAVEL GUIDE TO SAFE

FOOD AND WATER also downloadable from the health hub

at: Management/Health Documentation)