SAFE FOOD AND WATER. FOOD HAZARDS - 3 types of food hazards: BIOLOGICAL – Responsible for 99% of all food- and waterborne diseases producing food poisoning or food intoxication. Can be due to: Bacteria (germs) or their toxins - cholera, typhoid, E. coli, etc.
FOOD HAZARDS - 3 types of food hazards:
BIOLOGICAL – Responsible for 99% of all food- and waterborne diseases
producing food poisoning or food intoxication.
Can be due to:
Bacteria (germs) or their toxins - cholera, typhoid, E. coli, etc.
Virus - hepatitis A, polio, rotavirus, etc.
Parasites - amoeba, ascaris, giardia, etc.
Chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides, herbicides
Glass, nails, wood, plastic
The fecal-oral cycle: Germs go from hands to the mouth, through the
intestines, excreted in the feces (bowel movement) and back on the hands
when a person wipes him- or herself after a bowel movement.
1-FOOD AND WATER - High protein foods (meat, poultry, dairy products, etc.) are dangerous foods. Germs cannot grow on dry foods. If water is added bacterial growth explodes.
2-WARMTH - THE DANGER ZONE = +5°C (+40°F) to +63°C (+145°F)
3-TIME - Some bacteria divide every 10 minutes!
Those foods where bacteria multiply quickly.
Those which are not cooked before being served.
Precooked, ready to eat foods - Cooked meat, poulty, hot dogs
Milk, cream, dairy products
Raw eggs and products made from eggs (mayonnaise, ice cream)
Shellfish and seafood
Hot and humid climates are more dangerous than cold and dry ones because the
heat and moisture cause foods to spoil more rapidly.
Restaurants and hotels are usually safer than street markets and local food
DIARRHEA – 4 to 5 watery bowel movements per day.
Usually develops within 6 hours after eating contaminated food or
drinking contaminated water and usually lasts 1-2 days. Longer in
Symptoms may last up to 7 days
and also include:
nausea and vomiting
Severe food contamination can lead to dysentery and fever above 101°F(38.5°C).
Yellow = Low
Orange = Medium
Red = High
High Risk Areas: Developing countries of Latin America, Africa, Middle East and Asia.
Note: Diarrhea can also be a symptom of malaria!
BEFORE LEAVING HOME – Get Vaccinated!
Vaccinations do not protect against all food- and waterborne diseases but provide protection against a certain number of serious illnesses transmitted by food and water: hepatitis A, typhoid, polio.
Even with these vaccinations everyone must follow the advice concerning food and water safety.
Always wash hands with hot water + soap + dry thoroughly
After going to the toilet
Before handling food and in between handling raw and cooked food
After combing hair
After blowing your nose
After handling waste food
After handling refuse
FOOD POISONING --> ILLNESS --> DEATH
One food handler can knock out the entire work force of a rig or
crew within a few days!
The location manager, camp boss, crew chief etc. is responsible for:
- maintaining the standards of food handlers (medically certified
and correctly trained)
- maintaining the standards of food storage and preparation.
Be in good health. If suffering from diarrhea, vomiting or food-borne infections
they should not handle food.
Have clean hands.
Have no infectious diseases. If skin infection, unprotected cut or sore, heavy
cold, ear or eye discharge, food handlers must be removed from the food chain.
When handling food, they must:
Cover their hair with a hairnet
Wear protective clothing
Not wear jewelry (watch, ring, etc.)
Not spit, sneeze or cough on or near food
Not touch their mouth, tongue, nose or eyes
Health and hygiene of food handlers is OK
Food handlers wear clean, protective clothing
Kitchen and equipment are kept clean
Food is kept covered
Food handling is reduced: use tongs,trays plates rather than hands
Raw and cooked foods are always kept separate
Screens are placed on doors and windows to keep out flies and insects
Insects, rodents and pets are not allowed in the kitchen area
Food is correctly stored and correctly conserved
Food quarters are regularly and correctly cleaned
Waste and refuse are rapidly removed
Food must be cooked thoroughly !
All heat processed foods are bacteria-free.
Heat processed foods are those which are:
Food must be correctly stored outside of the DANGER ZONE:
storage must be below +5°C (40°F) (refrigerator)
or above +63°C (145°F) (bain marie)
Food must stay as little time as possible during preparation in the DANGER
Do not leave foods at room temperature.
Suitable preservatives, such as salt and sugar, must be used.
Dried foods must not be allowed to absorb moisture.
Dry foods must be stored in a location that is:
Well lit Correctly ventilated
Clean and tidy
Foods must be checked upon delivery.
And stored off the floor on shelves or stainless steel racks.
Perishable foods must be placed in the refrigerator.
Refrigerator should operate at or below 5°C (40°F).
A thermometer should be placed in the warmest part of the refrigerator and
checked daily. The refrigerator should be cleaned weekly.
Frozen foods should be transported and stocked in the freezer at -18°C (0°F).
They are delivered in damaged or leaking cartons.
They are delivered in soiled trays.
They have been infested by insects or rodents.
They contain cans that are rusty or bady dented.
They are out of date.
Boiling – the best technique for the traveler
For more information see the Schlumberger TRAVEL GUIDE TO SAFE
FOOD AND WATER also downloadable from the health hub
at: www.healthhub.slb.com(Risk Management/Health Documentation)