Republica Dominica By: Ashley Bisek and StephRanzau
Dominican Republic Flag The Dominican Republic flag was officially adopted on November 6, 1844. The blue and red are from the flag of Haiti, which once controlled the Dominican Republic. The white cross is symbolic of faith. The centered coat of arms appears on the flag for national and state use only. That coat of arms displays an open bible topped by a gold cross. Above the arms the Trinitarian motto is displayed, Dios, Patria, Libertad. (God, Country, Freedom)
Geography • Land area: 18,680 sq mi (48,381 sq km) • Population (2007 est.): 9,365,818 • Capital and largest city: Santo Domingo, 2,851,300 (metro. area) • The Dominican Republic in the West Indies occupies the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, which it shares with Haiti. • Its area equals that of Vermont and New Hampshire combined. • Duarte Peak, at 10,417 ft (3,175 m), is the highest point in the West Indies.
People of Dominican Republic • Growth rate: 1.5% • Birth rate: 22.9/1000 • Infant mortality rate: 27.9/1000 • Life expectancy: 73.1 • Density per sq mi: 501 • Language: Spanish • Ethnicity/race: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73% • Religion: Roman Catholic 95% • Literacy rate: 85%
Religion • The majority of the people of the Dominican Republic are Roman Catholics almost 95% • Dominican Catholicism is an eclectic mix of Roman Catholic traditions and African-rooted religions • There are some small Protestant, Seventh Day Adventist, Baptist, Mormon and Jewish communities throughout the Dominican Republic as well.
Forms of Government • President: LeonelFernández (2004) • Foreign Minister--Carlos Morales Troncoso • Ambassador to the United States--Flavio Dario Jacobo • Representative democracy. • Independence date: February 27, 1844. • Constitution: November 28, 1966; amended July 25, 2002. • 3 Branches: Executive--Legislative-- Judicial— • Subdivisions: 31 provinces and the National District of Santo Domingo. • Political parties: Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD), Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), and several others.
Economy of the DR • GDP/PPP (2006 est.): $77.09 billion; • Per capita $8,400. • Real growth rate: 10.7%. • Inflation: 8.2%. • Unemployment: 16%. • Non-fuel minerals (1.4% of GDP): Nickel, gold, silver. • Agriculture (11% of GDP): Products--sugarcane, coffee, cocoa, bananas, tobacco, rice, plantains, beef. • Industry (25% of GDP): Types--sugar refining, pharmaceuticals, cement, light manufacturing, construction.
Economy-2 • Services, including tourism and transportation: 62% of GDP. • Trade: Exports are$6.146 billion • Markets--U.S., Canada, Western Europe, South Korea. • Imports--$9.876 billion: food, petroleum, industrial raw materials, capital goods. • Suppliers--U.S., Japan, Germany, Venezuela, Mexico, Colombia.
Currency • Monetary unit: Dominican Peso • 1 US Dollar = 34.14086 Dominican R. Peso • 1 Dominican R. Peso (DOP) = 0.02929 US Dollar (USD)
History • The Dominican Republic was explored by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492. He named it La Española. • The capital, Santo Domingo, founded in 1496, is the oldest European settlement in the Western Hemisphere. • Spain ceded the colony to France in 1795, and Haitian blacks under L'Ouverture conquered it in 1801. • In 1808 the people revolted and captured Santo Domingo the next year, setting up the first republic. • Spain regained title to the colony in 1814. • In 1821 Spanish rule was overthrown, but in 1822 the colony was reconquered by the Haitians. • In 1844 the Haitians were thrown out, and the Dominican Republic was established, headed by Pedro Santana.
History-2 • Uprisings and Haitian attacks led Santana to make the country a province of Spain from 1861 to 1865. • President Buenaventura Báez, faced with an economy in shambles, attempted to have the country annexed to the U.S. in 1870, but the U.S. Senate refused to ratify a treaty of annexation. • Disorder continued until the dictatorship of UlísesHeureaux; in 1916 • When chaos broke out again, the U.S. sent in a contingent of marines, who remained until 1924. • A sergeant in the Dominican army trained by the marines, Rafaél Molina, overthrew HoracioVásquez in 1930 • Vásquez established a dictatorship that lasted until his assassination in 1961, 31 years later. • In 1962, Juan Bosch of the leftist Dominican Revolutionary Party, became the first democratically elected president in four decades.
History-3 • In 1963, a military coup ousted Bosch. • Leftists rebelled against the new regime in April 1965, and U.S. president Lyndon Johnson sent in marines and troops. After a cease-fire in May, a compromise installed Hector Garcia-Godoy as provisional president. • In 1966, right-wing candidate Balaguer won in free elections against Bosch, and U.S. and other foreign troops withdrew. • In 1978 the army suspended the counting of ballots when Balaguer trailed in a fourth-term bid. After a warning from President Jimmy Carter, however, Balaguer accepted the victory of Antonio Guzmán of the Dominican Revolutionary Party.
History-4 • In 1982 elections, Salvador Jorge Blanco of the Dominican Revolutionary Party defeated Balaguer and Bosch. Balaguer was again elected president in May 1986 and remained in office for the next ten years. • In 1996, U.S.-raised LeonelFernández secured more than 51% of the vote through an alliance with Balaguer. • The first item on the president's agenda was the partial sale of some state-owned enterprises. • Fernández was praised for ending decades of isolationism and improving ties with other Caribbean countries, but he was criticized for not fighting corruption or alleviating the poverty that now affects 60% of the population.
Education • Primary education is officially free and compulsory for children between the ages of 7 and 14 • Primary schooling is followed by a two-year intermediate school and a four-year secondary course, after which a diploma called the bachillerato is awarded. • Relatively few lower-income students succeed in reaching this level, because the system is designed to encourage middle- and upper-income students to prepare for admittance to a university. • Most wealthier students attend private schools, which are frequently sponsored by religious institutions. • Some public and private vocational education is available, particularly in the field of agriculture
Climate • The Dominican Republic has primarily a tropical climate, with seasonal variability in the amount of rainfall. • The average annual temperature is 25° C, ranging from 18° C at an altitude of over 1,200 meters to 28° C at an altitude of 10 meters. • In general, August is the hottest month, and January and February are the coldest ones. • Seasons, however, vary more as a function of rainfall than of temperature
Customs and Traditions • Dominican Americans celebrate Dominican Day in August. They hold a big parade in Manhattan in New York City. • The flavor of Dominican food starts with garlic, onions, coriander, and oregano. • Merengueis the national dance of the Dominican immigrants.
International Disputes • New York City is the main city for Dominicans outside of the Dominican Republic. Many of them live in Washington Heights-Inwood section of Manhattan. • Every year increasing numbers of illegal migrants cross the Mona Passage to Puerto Rico to find work.
National symbols • National bird is the Palm Chat: • National flower is the Flower of Mahogany: • National stone is amber:
Sources • http://www.state.gov/.htm • http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-54444/Dominican-Republic • http://www.infoplease.com