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Research Methods in Biological Sciences, Bio 220
Females chose males based on their genetic quality (Anderson 1994).
Secondary Sex Traits:
are sensory displays that raise the success of the possessor in competition over
mates (Anderson 1994).
The Thesis Project:
is a good-genes theory test that focuses on wing-song.
Traits are favored because they already fit an existing sensory bias in females
Females evolve resistance to courtship due to male induced harm
(Holland and Rice 98).
There will not be a significant difference in the rate of evolving thermal tolerance between the populations.
Vail: Seven males and seven females
Replicate: 15 vials
Population: Four replicates
THERMAL PROTOCOL (Holland 2002)
SPSS 11.0 Software
Alpha Risk Level of .05
At least one year to complete
Ashburner, M. 1990. Drosophila: a laboratory handbook. Cold
Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
Basolo, A. L. 1990. Female preference predates the evolution of
the sword in swordtail fish. Science 250:808–180.
Bateman, A. J. 1948. Intra-sexual selection in Drosophila. Heredity
Chapman, T., L. F. Liddle, J. M. Kalb, M. F. Wolfner, and L.
Partridge. 1995. Cost of mating in Drosophila melanogaster females
is mediated by male accessory gland products. Nature 373:
Endler, J. A., and A. L. Basolo. 1998. Sensory ecology, receiver
biases and sexual selection. Trends Ecol. Evol. 13:415–410.
Enquist, M., and A. Arak. 1993. Selection of exaggerated male
traits by female aesthetic senses. Nature 361: 446-448.
Fowler, K., and L. Partridge. 1989. A cost of mating in female
fruit flies. Nature 338:760–761.
Holland, B., and W. R. Rice. 1998. Chase-away sexual selection:
antagonistic seduction versus resistance. Evolution 52:1–7.
Holland, B. 2001. Sexual selection fails to promote adaptation to a
new environment. Evolution 56:721-730.
James, A. C., and L. Partridge. 1995. Thermal evolution of rate of
larval development in Drosophila melanogaster in laboratory
and field populations. J. Evol. Biol. 8:315–330.
Kirkpatrick, M. 1987. Sexual selection by female choice in polygynousanimals. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 18:43–70.
Krebs, J. R., and N. R. B. Davies, 1993. The Design of Signals: Ecology and Evolution, Pp. 349–374 in: An Introduction to Behavioural Eco- logy Behavioural Ecology (Third Edition). Blackwell, Oxford, U.K.
Moller, A.P. 1988. Female choice selects for male sexual tail
ornaments in the monogamous swallow. Nature 332: 640-642.
Partridge, L. 1980. Mate choice increases a component of offspring
fitness in fruit flies. Nature 283:290–291.
Petrie, M. 1994. Improved growth and survival of offspring of peacocks
with more elaborate trains. Nature 371:598–599.
Ritchie, M. G., M. Saarikettu, S. Livingstone, and A. Hoikkala. 2001.
Characterization of female preference functions for Drosophila
montana courtship song and a test of the temperature coupling
hypothesis. Evolution 55:721–727.
Ryan, M. J. 1990. Sexual selection, sensory systems, and sensory
exploitation. Oxf. Surv. Evol. Biol. 7:156–195.
Schaeffer, S. W., C. J. Brown, and W. W. Anderson. 1984. Does
mate choice affect fitness? Genetics 107:S94.
Welch, Allison, R. D. Semlitsch, and K. Carl Gerhardt. 1998.
Call duration as an indicator of genetic quality in male gray
tree frogs. Science 280: 1928-1930.References
www.calendars.com (accessed 2/2/06)
California State University, Sacramento
http://www.csus.edu/physics/ (accessed 2/2/06)
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