5 Consumer and Business Buyer Behavior
ROAD MAP: Previewing the Concepts • Understand the consumer market and the major factors that influence consumer buyer behavior. • Identify and discuss the stages in the buyer decision process. • Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products. • Define the business market and identify the major factors that influence business buyer behavior. • List and define the steps in the business buying decision process.
Consumer Buying Behavior • Refers to the buying behavior of people who buy goods and services for personal use. • These people make up the consumer market. • The central question for marketers is: • “How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use?”
Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Cultural Culture Subculture Social Class Social Reference Groups Family Roles & Status Personal Age & Life-Cycle Stage Occupation Economic Situation Lifestyle Personality & Self-Concept Psychological Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs & Attitudes
Culture • Culture is the Most Basic Cause of a Person's Wants and Behavior. Culture is learned from family, church, school, peers, colleagues. Culture includes basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors.
Culture • Subculture • Groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences. • Major Groups • Hispanic Consumers • African-American Consumers • Asian-American Consumers • Mature Consumers
Marketing to a Subculture Sears is widely considered one of the most successful marketers to the U.S. Hispanic population. Its Spanish-language Web site features content and events carefully tailored to Hispanic consumers.
Culture • Social Class • Society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. • Measured by a combination of: occupation, income, education, wealth, and other variables.
Social Factors • Groups • Membership • Reference (opinion leaders) • Aspirational • Most important consumer • buying organization • Family • Role =Expected activities • Status = • Esteem given to role by society • Roles & • Status
Opinion Leaders Marketers use buzz marketing by enlisting or even creating opinion leaders to spread the word about their brands.
Personal Factors Age and Life-Cycle Stage Occupation Economic Situation
Personal Factors Lifestyle Pattern of Living as Expressed in Psychographics Activities Interests Opinions
Jeep • Shows how a person’s lifestyle can help marketers understand consumer values and their impact on buying behavior. • Ad targets people who want to “leave the civilized world behind.” • Click Here to Visit Jeep's Website
Personality & Self-Concept • Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one’s own environment. • Generally defined in terms of traits. • Self-concept suggests that people’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identities.
Perception • Perception • Information Inputs • Interpretation • Selective Exposure • Selective Distortion • Selective Retention
Perception • Information inputs are the sensations received through the sense organs. • Perception is the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning.
Perception • Selective Attention: the process of selecting some inputs to attend to while ignoring others. • An input is more likely to reach a person’s awareness if it relates to an anticipated event.
Perception • Selective distortion is an individual’s changing or twisting of information when it is inconsistent with personal feelings or beliefs. • Selective retention is remembering information that supports personal feelings and beliefs and forgetting inputs that do not.
Learning • Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. • Interplay of drives, stimuli, cues, responses, and reinforcement. • Strongly influenced by the consequences of an individual’s behavior • Behaviors with satisfying results tend to be repeated. • Behaviors with unsatisfying results tend not to be repeated.
Beliefs & Attitudes • A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. • Attitude describes a person’s consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.
Interactive Student Assignment • Choose a partner and talk about some product for which each of you has strong attitudes. These attitudes can be either positive or negative. What led you to have these attitudes toward these products?
Buying Decision Process Step #1 = Need Recognition • Buyer becomes aware of a difference between a desired state and an actual condition. • Individual may be unaware of the problem or need. • Marketers may use sales personnel, advertising, and packaging to trigger recognition of needs or problems. • Recognition speed can be slow or fast.
Need Recognition Need recognition can be triggered by advertising. This ad from America’s Dairy Farmers alerts consumers of their need for more dairy products to build strong bones.
Buying Decision Process Step #2 = Information Search • This stage begins after the consumer becomes aware of the problem or need. • The search for information about products will help resolve the problem or satisfy the need. • There are various sources of information.
Sources of Information • Personal • - Most effective source • - Family, friends, neighbors • - Advertising, salespeople • - Receives the most information • from these sources • Commercial • - Mass Media • - Consumer-rating groups • Public • - Handling the product • - Examining the product • - Using the product • Experiential
Buying Decision Process Consumers May Use Careful Calculations & Logical Thinking Consumers May Buy on Impulse and Rely on Intuition Consumers May Make Buying Decisions on Their Own Consumer May Make Decisions After Talking With Others Marketers Must Study Buyers to Find Out How They Evaluate Brand Alternatives
Buying Decision Process Factors That Influence Purchase Decision Unexpected Situational Factors Attitudes Of Others
Buying Decision Process Consumer satisfaction is a function of consumer expectations and perceived product performance. Performance < Expectations Disappointment Performance = Expectations Satisfaction Performance > Expectations Delight
Buying Decision Process • Cognitive dissonance: a buyer’s doubts shortly after a purchase about whether it was the right decision.
Stages in the Adoption Process • Awareness: Consumer becomes aware of the new product, but lacks information about it. • Interest: Consumer seeks information about new product. • Evaluation: Consumer considers whether trying the new product makes sense. • Trial: Consumer tries new product on a small scale to improve his or her estimate of its value. • Adoption: Consumer decides to make full and regular use of the new product.
The Adoption Process This ad encourages trial by offering a coupon.
Product Adopter Categories • When an organization introduces a new product, people do not begin the adoption process at the same time, nor do they move through it at the same speed. • Adopters are divided into five categories.
Product Adopter Categories • Product Adopter Categories 2.5% Innovators 16% Laggards 13.5% Early Adopters 34% Late Majority 34% Early Majority
Product Adopter Categories Group #1 - Innovators • Innovators are the first adopters of new products. • They are venturesome – they try new ideas at some risk.
Product Adopter Categories Group #2 – Early Adopters • Early adopters are guided by respect. • They are opinion leaders in their communities and adopt new ideas early but carefully.
Product Adopter Categories Group #3 – Early Majority • Early majority are deliberate. • Although they rarely are leaders, they adopt new ideas before the average person.
Product Adopter Categories Group #4 – Late Majority • Late majority are skeptical. • They adopt an innovation only after a majority of people have tried it.
Product Adopter Categories Group #5 - Laggards • Laggards are tradition bound. • They are suspicious of changes and adopt the innovation only when it has become something of a tradition itself.
Interactive Student Assignment • Choose a partner and come up with a list of items for which you fit into each of the product adopter categories. What is it about you that puts you into a different category for each of those products?
Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption • Relative Advantage: Is the innovation superior to existing products? • Compatibility: Does the innovation fit the values and experience of the target market? • Complexity: Is the innovation difficult to understand or use? • Divisibility: Can the innovation be used on a limited basis? • Communicability: Can results be easily observed or described to others?
New Product Adoption Rate Some products catch on almost overnight. Others, such as HDTV, take a long time to gain acceptance.
Business Markets &Business Buyer Behavior • The business market is vast and involves far more dollars and items than do consumer markets. • Business buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of the organizations that buy goods and services for use in the production of other products and services that are sold, rented, or supplied to others.
Market Structure and Demand: Contains far fewer but larger buyers. Customers are more geographically concentrated. Business demand is derived from consumer demand. Nature of the Buying Unit: Business purchases involve more decision participants. Business buying involves a more professional purchasing effort. Business Markets
Types of Decisions and the Decision Process Business buyers usually face more complex buying decisions. Business buying process tends to be more formalized. Buyers and sellers are much more dependent on each other.
Business Markets B2B marketers often roll up their sleeves and partner with customers to jointly create solutions. Here, Fujitsu promises, “Our technology will keep you moving upward, and our people won’t let you down.”