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Chapter 3: Planning Network Protocols and Compatibility. Learning Objectives. Explain basic network concepts, including network terms, types of networks, and network cards Explain the NDIS and ODI network driver specifications

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Explain basic network concepts, including network terms, types of networks, and network cards
  • Explain the NDIS and ODI network driver specifications
  • Explain the communications protocols used in Windows 2000 Server, including TCP/IP, NWLink, NetBEUI, DLC, and AppleTalk
learning objectives continued
Learning Objectives (continued)
  • Plan network binding order, change the binding order, and bind and unbind protocols
  • Plan how to implement protocols on different types of networks
  • A protocol consists of guidelines for:
    • How data is formatted into discrete units called packets and frames
    • How packets and frames are transmitted across one or more networks
    • How packets and frames are interpreted at the receiving end
packets and frames
Packets and Frames
  • Packets and frames are units of data transmitted from one networked computer or device to another.
  • Although packets and frames are often used to have the same meaning, there is a difference. Packets operate at a higher communication layer and contain routing information.
general sections in packets and frames
General Sections in Packets and Frames
  • Header
  • Data
  • Trailer or footer
packet and frame format
Packet and Frame Format

Figure 3-1 Basic packet and frame format

network design
Network Design
  • The basic design of a network is its topology
  • Topology: The physical layout of the cable and the logical path followed by network packets and frames sent on the cable
local area network
Local Area Network
  • Local area network (LAN): Joins computers, printers, and other computer equipment within a limited service area and generally employs only one topology
example of a lan
Example of a LAN

Figure 3-2 A LAN in a building

metropolitan area network
Metropolitan Area Network
  • Metropolitan area network (MAN): A network that links multiple LANs within a large city or metropolitan area
example of a man
Example of a MAN

University chemistry


Research hospital

Pharmaceutical company

MAN connecting buildings in a city

enterprise network
Enterprise Network
  • Enterprise Network: A network that often reaches throughout a large area, such as a college campus, a city, or across several states. A distinguishing factor of an enterprise network is that it brings together an array of network resources such as many kinds of servers, mainframes, printers, network devices, intranets, and the Internet
typical resources in an enterprise network
Typical Resources in an Enterprise Network

Figure 3-3

Resources in an

enterprise network

wide area network
Wide Area Network
  • Wide Area Network (WAN): A far-reaching system of networks that can extend across state lines and across continents
example of a wan
Example of a WAN

WAN across a continent

network interface card communication medium options
Network Interface Card Communication Medium Options
  • Coaxial cable (thick and thinnet)
  • Twisted-pair (shielded and unshielded)
  • Fiber-optic
  • Wireless (infrared, radio wave, microwave, satellite)
connecting a medium to a nic
Connecting a Medium to a NIC

Figure 3-4 Connecting cable to a NIC

device address
Device Address
  • Each NIC has a physical or device address that is burned into a PROM on the card
  • Media access control (MAC) address is another way of describing the device address
ethernet and token ring
Ethernet and Token Ring
  • Ethernet: A network transport system that uses a carrier sensing and collision detection method to regulate data transmissions
  • Token ring: A network transport method that uses a token, which is passed from node to node, to coordinate data transmissions
  • Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS): A set of standards developed by Microsoft and 3COM for network drivers that enables communication between a NIC and a protocol, and that enables the use of multiple protocols on the same network
ndis architecture
NDIS Architecture

Figure 3-5 Binding a protocol to a NIC

  • Open Datalink Interface (ODI) driver: A driver that is used by Novell NetWare networks to transport multiple protocols on the same network
tcp ip
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) portion performs extensive error checking to ensure that data is delivered successfully
  • Internet Protocol (IP) portion consists of rules for packaging data and ensuring that it reaches the correct destination address
dotted decimal notation
Dotted Decimal Notation
  • Dotted Decimal Notation: An addressing technique that uses four octets, such as 100000110.11011110.1100101.00000101, converted to decimal (e.g.,, to differentiate individual servers, workstations, and other network devices.
unicasting and multicasting
Unicasting and Multicasting
  • In a unicast, a transmission is sent to each client that requests a file or application, such as a multimedia presentation
  • In a multicast, a transmission is sent to all requesting clients as a group (reducing the total network traffic)
unicasting and multicasting compared
Unicasting and Multicasting Compared

Figure 3-6 Unicasting compared to multicasting

subnet mask
Subnet Mask
  • Subnet mask: A designated portion of an IP address that is used to indicate the class of addressing on a network and to divide a network into subnetworks as a way to control traffic and enforce security
configuring the ip address and subnet mask in windows 2000
Configuring the IP Address and Subnet Mask in Windows 2000

Figure 3-7 IP address and subnet mask setup

static and dynamic addressing
Static and Dynamic Addressing
  • Dynamic addressing: Involves automatically assigning an IP address to a network host
  • Static addressing: Involves manually assigning an IP address to a network host
tcp ip advantages
TCP/IP Advantages
  • Well-suited for medium and large networks
  • Designed for routing; has high degree of reliability
  • Used worldwide for directly connecting to the Internet and by Web servers
  • Enables lower TCO on Microsoft networks
tcp ip advantages34
TCP/IP Advantages
  • Compatible with standard tools for analyzing network performance
  • Parallel ability to use DHCP and WINS through a Windows 2000 server
  • Ability for diverse networks and operating systems to communicate
  • Compatible with Microsoft Windows Sockets
tcp ip disadvantages
TCP/IP Disadvantages
  • More difficult to set up and maintain than other protocols
  • Somewhat slower than IPX/SPX and NetBEUI on networks with light to medium traffic
routing via tcp ip
Routing via TCP/IP

Figure 3-8

Router forwarding

packets to a

designated network

planning tip
Planning Tip
  • For medium and large sized networks, plan to use TCP/IP because it enables you to manage and secure network traffic through creating subnets
ipx spx
  • IPX: A protocol developed by Novell for use with its NetWare server operating system (particularly for NetWare versions before version 5)
  • SPX: A Novell connection-oriented protocol used for network transport when there is a particular need for data reliability
  • A network protocol that simulates the IPX/SPX protocol for Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT, and 2000 communications with Novell NetWare file servers and compatible devices
client service for netware csnw components
Client Service for NetWare (CSNW) Components
  • Client Service for NetWare
  • NWLink IPX/SPX
  • NWLink NetBIOS
csnw installed in windows 2000
CSNW Installed in Windows 2000

Figure 3-9 Windows 2000 with CSNW components installed

configuring nwlink
Configuring NWLink
  • Configure three elements:
    • Frame type
    • Network number
    • Internal network number
when to configure the internal network number
When to Configure the Internal Network Number
  • When the NetWare server that is accessed uses two or more frame types
  • When the Windows 2000 host has two or more NICs and NWLink is bound to more than one of the NICs
  • When an application uses NetWare’s Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
when to use nwlink
When to Use NWLink
  • To enable a computer running Windows 2000 to access a NetWare server (pre-version 5)
  • To set up Windows 2000 as a gateway to a NetWare server
  • To enable NetWare clients to access a Windows 2000 server
planning tip50
Planning Tip
  • If you upgrade NetWare servers to version 5.x or higher, convert from IPX/SPX to TCP/IP for better network communication options and better compatibility with Windows 2000 servers
  • A combination software interface and network naming convention
  • Available in Windows 2000 through the files Netbt.sys, NetBIOS.sys, and NetBIOS.dll
  • NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI): A non-routable communications protocol native to early Microsoft network communications
netbeui and netbios communication
NetBEUI and NetBIOS Communication

Figure 3-10



planning tip54
Planning Tip
  • When you upgrade from Windows NT Server to Windows 2000 Server, plan to retire NetBEUI implementations (if possible) and convert upgraded servers and clients to TCP/IP for more functionality
when to use netbeui
When to Use NetBEUI
  • For temporary backward compatibility when converting from Windows NT Server to Windows 2000 Server
  • For small networks that do not have Internet access, that do not use the Active Directory, that do not use routing, and that require only a basic installation
  • For backward compatibility with particular applications
  • Data Link Control (DLC) protocol: Enables communication with older IBM mainframes and minicomputers, and with some older HP print server cards
when to use dlc
When to Use DLC
  • To connect to IBM and other computers that use Systems Network Architecture (SNA) communications
  • To connect to older peripheral devices, such as printers that use DLC
  • AppleTalk: A peer-to-peer protocol used in network communication between Macintosh computers
  • Windows 2000 Server Services for Macintosh include:
    • File Server for Macintosh (MacFile)
    • Print Server for Macintosh (MacPrint)
    • AppleTalk protocol
when to use appletalk
When to Use AppleTalk
  • Use AppleTalk to enable Macintosh clients to connect to Windows 2000 Server
binding order
Binding Order
  • Windows NT and Windows 2000 enable you to set a binding order which establishes the protocol that will be tried first in a network communication (or a communication with a network printer)
troubleshooting tip
Troubleshooting Tip
  • If network performance is slow and your network uses a combination of protocols, tune the binding order on Windows NT and Windows 2000 clients which can be an inexpensive way to immediately relieve network congestion
network planning considerations
Network Planning Considerations
  • Size and purpose of the organization
  • Potential growth
  • Proportion of mission-critical applications
  • Role of the network to the mission of the organization
  • Security needs
  • Budget
  • Internet and intranet requirements
  • Interconnectivity requirements
planning tip63
Planning Tip
  • Begin network planning by understanding:
    • User needs
    • Important business processes
    • Current resources
    • Potential growth
considerations in selecting the right protocol s
Considerations in Selecting the Right Protocol(s)
  • Routing needs
  • Size of the network in terms of connections
  • Presence of Windows 2000 servers
  • Presence of mainframes and other computers that use SNA
  • Presence of NetWare servers
  • Access to the Internet or intranets
  • Presence of mission-critical and multimedia applications
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Protocols are the life blood of a network, thus plan their use carefully.
  • The Microsoft NDIS driver enables using one or more protocols such as TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBEUI, DLC, and AppleTalk.
  • For modern networking TCP/IP implementations are preferred.
chapter summary66
Chapter Summary
  • Plan to use only the protocols necessary.
  • Tune network binding order in Windows NT and Windows 2000 operating systems to enhance network performance.