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#1 Purpose of Commercial Broadcasting, Cable, Satellite or Internet:. Attract Audiences. Who, then, influences the kinds of programs which will do this?. Advertisers Set the Trend. Narrowcasting Demographics Psychographics Segmentation. Programs follow the trend. Consumer Targets.

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1 purpose of commercial broadcasting cable satellite or internet
#1 Purpose of Commercial Broadcasting, Cable, Satellite or Internet:

Attract Audiences

Who, then, influences the kinds of

programs which will do this?

advertisers set the trend
Advertisers Set the Trend
  • Narrowcasting
  • Demographics
  • Psychographics
  • Segmentation

Programs follow the trend

consumer targets
Consumer Targets
  • Males and females 18-34
  • Females 25-54
  • Marketing studies indicate they wield the most spending power
  • They may also have the most disposable income
bottom line thinking
Bottom Line Thinking:
  • Programmers want the best shows for the best price
  • The aim is to get the most valuable viewers for the least cost
  • All other considerations secondary
  • What does that say about us?
programs and cost
Programs and Cost

Parsimony Principle

  • Sparing use of material (stretching plot)
  • Replay (summer reruns, scheduled reruns)
  • Repurposing (Network shows appear on cable channels owned by the same media corporation)
  • What is lost/what is gained
birth of a program
Birth of a Program
  • Network tells studios what audience it wants to target (studios already know)
  • Studios pull concepts off the shelf, make a pilot, show it to the Net
  • Net may like it, ask for changes, or ask for a few episodes
  • Only 25% make it on the air
  • Darwinian, market based and dumb
deficit financing
Deficit Financing
  • Studios retain rights to the program and to its distribution
  • First purchase by Net rarely covers production costs
  • Resale to cable and individual TV stations is called off-network syndication
  • That’s where the REAL money is.
  • Are we getting the market point?
syndication any non local programs not currently licensed to a network
SyndicationAny non-local programs not currently licensed to a network
  • Off-network: have appeared or may still be running on a broadcast network
  • First-run: originally designed for syndication never seen on a network
  • How do new creative enterprises get in
how syndication works
How Syndication Works
  • Industry showcases new offerings (but most deals happen before hand)
  • Station leases a syndicated program for a certain # of runs or a time period
  • Lease fee is cash or barter (free time) or a combination of both
  • Some contracts specify a time slot
the barter dilemma trading advertising for programming
The Barter Dilemma:Trading advertising for programming
  • Progams come off the satellite with spots already inserted
  • Reduces # of local availabilities [avails]
  • Stations may also be forced to pay cash
  • Smaller markets/lower rated stations pay more--spots are less valuable
who s doing the syndicating
Who’s doing the Syndicating?
  • Studios like Paramount and Buena Vista (with off-network syndication they can make a profit)
  • Production Companies like King World (their programs cheaper to produce)
  • Syndicators may bundle a genre together and offer packages of same
  • Local broadcast stations may pay extra for exclusivity on a given program
rules and regs
Rules and Regs
  • fin/syn: elimination of this rule allowed the mergers of networks with production companies and syndication firms
  • (Financial Interest and Synication Rules)
  • Huge debates about access related to fin/syn rules.
  • The networks have freer reign again
radio syndciation
Radio Syndciation
  • Syndicated formats
  • Syndicated features
  • Talk show, business, consumer advise
  • A growth in niche programming
  • A shrinking diversity
  • Less local content
  • Much less jobs available
radio syndicated formats
Radio: Syndicated Formats

Playlists are


via Satellite

radio syndicated features
Radio: Syndicated Features

Rush Limbaugh Howard Stern

dividingtv dayparts
DividingTV Dayparts
  • Early Morning (News and Info)
  • Morning (Talk and Info)
  • Noon (News)
  • Afternoon (Soaps)
  • Early Fringe/News Block (varies)
  • Local Access
  • Prime Time
  • Late Fringe/News Block
  • Late Night….. Overnight
radio dayparts
Radio Dayparts
  • Morning Drive
  • Midday
  • Afternoon Drive
  • Night
  • Overnight
  • Radio Format Clock p. 235: we will discuss March 20
tv program sources
TV Program Sources
  • Local
  • Major Hollywood Film Studios
  • A few Minor Hollywood Studios
  • A few Major/Minor Independent Producers
  • Some foreign syndicators
feature films
Feature Films
  • 1st reach audience through theatres
  • More money made through video distribution
  • More money made through premium cable movie channels (HBO)
  • Even more money made through rights to broadcast networks
  • More money still… reruns on cable networks (Turner)
network programming strategies
Network Programming Strategies
  • Counterprogramming
  • Block programming
  • Stripping
  • Strong lead-in
  • Leading-out
  • Hot switching
  • Hammock
radio program strategies
Radio Program Strategies
  • Schedule program elements in 60 minute cycles (CNN was the first TV network to utilize this strategy)
  • Try to match audience activities and environments
  • Counterprogramming, stripping, blocking
program promotion
Program Promotion
  • Image: promote a station’s or network’s news philosophy or experience
  • Topical: promote specific news segments or entertainment episodes
  • Program: Generic
  • Billboard: lineup of what’s on tonight
  • Radio/TV “tradeouts” (may involve tickets)