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#1 Purpose of Commercial Broadcasting, Cable, Satellite or Internet:. Attract Audiences. Who, then, influences the kinds of programs which will do this?. Advertisers Set the Trend. Narrowcasting Demographics Psychographics Segmentation. Programs follow the trend. Consumer Targets.

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1 purpose of commercial broadcasting cable satellite or internet l.jpg
#1 Purpose of Commercial Broadcasting, Cable, Satellite or Internet:

Attract Audiences

Who, then, influences the kinds of

programs which will do this?

Advertisers set the trend l.jpg
Advertisers Set the Trend Internet:

  • Narrowcasting

  • Demographics

  • Psychographics

  • Segmentation

Programs follow the trend

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Consumer Targets Internet:

  • Males and females 18-34

  • Females 25-54

  • Marketing studies indicate they wield the most spending power

  • They may also have the most disposable income

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Bottom Line Thinking: Internet:

  • Programmers want the best shows for the best price

  • The aim is to get the most valuable viewers for the least cost

  • All other considerations secondary

  • What does that say about us?

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Programs and Cost Internet:

Parsimony Principle

  • Sparing use of material (stretching plot)

  • Replay (summer reruns, scheduled reruns)

  • Repurposing (Network shows appear on cable channels owned by the same media corporation)

  • What is lost/what is gained

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Birth of a Program Internet:

  • Network tells studios what audience it wants to target (studios already know)

  • Studios pull concepts off the shelf, make a pilot, show it to the Net

  • Net may like it, ask for changes, or ask for a few episodes

  • Only 25% make it on the air

  • Darwinian, market based and dumb

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Deficit Financing Internet:

  • Studios retain rights to the program and to its distribution

  • First purchase by Net rarely covers production costs

  • Resale to cable and individual TV stations is called off-network syndication

  • That’s where the REAL money is.

  • Are we getting the market point?

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Syndication Internet:Any non-local programs not currently licensed to a network

  • Off-network: have appeared or may still be running on a broadcast network

  • First-run: originally designed for syndication never seen on a network

  • How do new creative enterprises get in

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How Syndication Works Internet:

  • Industry showcases new offerings (but most deals happen before hand)

  • Station leases a syndicated program for a certain # of runs or a time period

  • Lease fee is cash or barter (free time) or a combination of both

  • Some contracts specify a time slot

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The Barter Dilemma: Internet:Trading advertising for programming

  • Progams come off the satellite with spots already inserted

  • Reduces # of local availabilities [avails]

  • Stations may also be forced to pay cash

  • Smaller markets/lower rated stations pay more--spots are less valuable

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Who’s doing the Syndicating? Internet:

  • Studios like Paramount and Buena Vista (with off-network syndication they can make a profit)

  • Production Companies like King World (their programs cheaper to produce)

  • Syndicators may bundle a genre together and offer packages of same

  • Local broadcast stations may pay extra for exclusivity on a given program

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Rules and Regs Internet:

  • fin/syn: elimination of this rule allowed the mergers of networks with production companies and syndication firms

  • (Financial Interest and Synication Rules)

  • Huge debates about access related to fin/syn rules.

  • The networks have freer reign again

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Radio Syndciation Internet:

  • Syndicated formats

  • Syndicated features

  • Talk show, business, consumer advise

  • A growth in niche programming

  • A shrinking diversity

  • Less local content

  • Much less jobs available

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Radio: Syndicated Formats Internet:

Playlists are


via Satellite

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Radio: Syndicated Features Internet:

Rush Limbaugh Howard Stern

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DividingTV Dayparts Internet:

  • Early Morning (News and Info)

  • Morning (Talk and Info)

  • Noon (News)

  • Afternoon (Soaps)

  • Early Fringe/News Block (varies)

  • Local Access

  • Prime Time

  • Late Fringe/News Block

  • Late Night….. Overnight

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Radio Dayparts Internet:

  • Morning Drive

  • Midday

  • Afternoon Drive

  • Night

  • Overnight

  • Radio Format Clock p. 235: we will discuss March 20

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TV Program Sources Internet:

  • Local

  • Major Hollywood Film Studios

  • A few Minor Hollywood Studios

  • A few Major/Minor Independent Producers

  • Some foreign syndicators

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Feature Films Internet:

  • 1st reach audience through theatres

  • More money made through video distribution

  • More money made through premium cable movie channels (HBO)

  • Even more money made through rights to broadcast networks

  • More money still… reruns on cable networks (Turner)

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Network Programming Strategies Internet:

  • Counterprogramming

  • Block programming

  • Stripping

  • Strong lead-in

  • Leading-out

  • Hot switching

  • Hammock

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Radio Program Strategies Internet:

  • Schedule program elements in 60 minute cycles (CNN was the first TV network to utilize this strategy)

  • Try to match audience activities and environments

  • Counterprogramming, stripping, blocking

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Program Promotion Internet:

  • Image: promote a station’s or network’s news philosophy or experience

  • Topical: promote specific news segments or entertainment episodes

  • Program: Generic

  • Billboard: lineup of what’s on tonight

  • Radio/TV “tradeouts” (may involve tickets)