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Foci ‘foci’ : is a collective term used to describe focal forms and places in the landscapet hat attract people or are visually dominant and distinctive – differentiated from their context. Foci are ‘natural’stopping places. Examples of the use of: • Topography, • Vegetation, • Structures and water to form foci
A focus can be defined as: • a form or centralized group of forms (often vertical) that contrast(s) with the surrounding landscape • a landscape form which assists orientation • a form that marks a place of spiritual, cultural or social significance attracting people and becoming a destination and gathering point • an ‘event’ in the landscape.
Foci and path • Foci can beNatural foci or created function • Natural foci such as : • Single large old trees • Rocky tors
created function: • Memorial sites • Sculpture • Places for cultural and social events. • places or forms considered to have spiritual significance
Foci and spaces • Focal forms often at: • the centre of a space • within spaces • Off-centre • At the centre of a space: • Centrality can suggest unity, self or hierarchy, symmetry and static. • hierarchical and more dynamic.
Focal forms within spaces: draw people into those spaces, but also provide objects on which to rest one’s look from the edge of a space. • Off-centre: • focal forms contribute to a different spatial sense, less
Foci • focal spaces are oases, glades or plateaus. • Public sculpture: • plays a focal role in the landscape • cultural and aesthetic intentions, • provide orientation functions. • Landmarks: • we use landmarks to help orientate ourselves. Landmarks aid people in distinguishing their spatial location because of their ‘differentiation’ in form from their context. help people to and help better judge distance. • Buildings: • Buildings play a central role as foci and landmarks in the landscape, especially if they are single isolated structures in natural, rural or predominantly vegetated environments.
Foci and edges • Focal forms can be located singly or in groups along edges. For example,: • light marble sculptures are foci in dark green hedge niches and can be grouped into rhythmic sequences • As single forms on an edge, foci can be places to stop and sit, or may mark a gateway or threshold through to another space. • Focal forms such as posts may be arranged to form a permeable edge and may also function as informal seating or waiting places (anchors).