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Chapter Two
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  1. Chapter Two Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring

  2. Chapter Two Outline 2-1a • Foundation of Organizational Culture • Layers of Organizational Culture • Four Functions of Organizational Culture • Types of Organizational Culture • Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culture • How Cultures are Embedded in Organizations • Embedding Organizational Culture Through Socialization Processes and Mentoring. • A Three-Phase Model of Organizational Socialization • Practical Application of Socialization Research • Attitudes • Using Mentoring to Your Advantage

  3. Organizational Culture Is “The set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments.” - Edgar Schein

  4. Conceptual Framework for Understanding Organizational Culture Figure 2-1 (p41) shows the building blocks of organizational culture and its outcomes

  5. Observable Artifacts Espoused Values Basic Underlying Assumptions The Layers of Organizational Culture Source: Adapted from E H Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992), p 17.

  6. Organizational identity Collective commitment Sense-making device Organizational culture Social system stability Four Functions of Organizational Culture

  7. Types of Organizational Culture Type of Normative Culture Belief Characteristics Constructive Achievement Goal and achievement oriented Constructive Self-actualizing Value self-development and creativity Constructive Humanistic-Participative, employee encouraging centered, and supportive ConstructiveAffiliative High priority on constructive interpersonal relationships, and focus on work group satisfaction

  8. Types of Organizational Culture (cont) Type of Normative Culture Belief Characteristics Passive-Approval Avoid conflict, strive to be likedDefensiveby others, and approval oriented Passive- ConventionalConservative, bureaucratic, andDefensive people follow the rules Passive- DependentNonparticipative, centralizedDefensive decision making, and employees do what they are told Passive-AvoidanceNegative reward system andDefensiveavoid accountability

  9. Types of Organizational Culture (cont) Type of Normative Culture Belief Characteristics Aggressive- Oppositional Confrontation and negativismDefensive rewarded Aggressive-Power Nonparticipative, take charge of Defensive subordinates and responsive to superiors Aggressive- Competitive Winning is valued and a win-Defensive lose approach is used. Aggressive- Perfectionistic Perfectionistic, persistent, and Defensive hard-working

  10. Embedding Organizational Culture • Formal statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used for recruiting, selection and socialization • The design of physical space, work environments, and buildings • Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings • Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching and coaching by managers and supervisors • Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g., titles),and promotion criteria • Stories, legends, and myths about key people and events

  11. Embedding Organizational Culture (cont) • The organizational activities, processes, or outcomes that leaders pay attention to, measure, and control • Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises • The workflow and organizational structure • Organizational systems and procedures • Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and retirement of people

  12. A Model of Organizational Socialization Perceptual and Social Processes Phases 1. Anticipatory socializationLearning that occursprior to joining the organization • Anticipating realities about the organization and the new job • Anticipating organization’s need for one’s skills and abilities • Anticipating organization’s sensitivity to one’s needs and values

  13. A Model of Organizational Socialization (cont.) Perceptual and Social Processes Phases • Managing lifestyle- versus-work conflicts • Managing intergroup role conflicts • Seeking role definition and clarity • Becoming familiar with task and group dynamics 2. Encounter Values, skills and attitudes start to shift as new recruit discovers what theorganization is trulylike

  14. A Model of Organizational Socialization (cont.) Perceptual and Social Processes Phases 3. Change and acquisition Recruit masters skills and roles and adjusts to workgroup’s values and norms • Competing role demands are resolved • Critical tasks are mastered • Group norms and values are internalized

  15. Outsider Phases 1. Anticipatory socialization 2. Encounter 3. Change and acquisition • Behavioral Outcomes • Performs role assignments • Remains with organization • Spontaneously innovates and cooperates SocializedInsider • Affective Outcomes • Generally satisfied • Internally motivated to work • High job involvement A Model of Organizational Socialization (continued)

  16. Have you Been Adequately Socialized? • Have you been adequately socialized in this College? • Does your school adequately socialize employees? • How do high levels of socialization impact a new student’s satisfaction? Explain. • What is a new student’s role in the socialization process?

  17. Mentoring The process of forming and maintaining intensive and lasting developmental relationships between a variety of developers (i.e., people who provide career and psychosocial support) and a junior person (the protégé, if male; or protégée if female). Functions of Mentoring • Career Functions- Sponsorship- Exposure and visibility- Coaching- Protection- Challenging assignments • Psychosocial Functions- Role modeling- Acceptance and confirmation- Counseling- Friendship

  18. Developmental Networks Associated with Mentoring Developmental relationship strength Strong ties Weak ties •D2 •D2 Low range D1• D1• •P •P Receptive Traditional Developmental relationship diversity D1• •D2 D1• •D2 • High range • P P D3• •D4 D3• •D4 Opportunistic Entrepreneurial Source: M Higgins and K Kram, “Reconceptualizing Mentoring at Work: A Developmental Network Perspective,” Academy of Management Review, April 2001, p. 270 Key: D, developer; P, protégé.

  19. Building an Effective Mentoring Network • Become the perfect protégé • Engage in 360-degree networking • Commit to assessing, building, and adjusting the mentor network • Develop diverse, synergistic connections • Realize that change is inevitable