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Chapter Two Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring
Chapter Two Outline 2-1a • Foundation of Organizational Culture • Layers of Organizational Culture • Four Functions of Organizational Culture • Types of Organizational Culture • Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culture • How Cultures are Embedded in Organizations • Embedding Organizational Culture Through Socialization Processes and Mentoring. • A Three-Phase Model of Organizational Socialization • Practical Application of Socialization Research • Attitudes • Using Mentoring to Your Advantage
Organizational Culture Is “The set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments.” - Edgar Schein
Conceptual Framework for Understanding Organizational Culture Figure 2-1 (p41) shows the building blocks of organizational culture and its outcomes
Observable Artifacts Espoused Values Basic Underlying Assumptions The Layers of Organizational Culture Source: Adapted from E H Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992), p 17.
Organizational identity Collective commitment Sense-making device Organizational culture Social system stability Four Functions of Organizational Culture
Types of Organizational Culture Type of Normative Culture Belief Characteristics Constructive Achievement Goal and achievement oriented Constructive Self-actualizing Value self-development and creativity Constructive Humanistic-Participative, employee encouraging centered, and supportive ConstructiveAffiliative High priority on constructive interpersonal relationships, and focus on work group satisfaction
Types of Organizational Culture (cont) Type of Normative Culture Belief Characteristics Passive-Approval Avoid conflict, strive to be likedDefensiveby others, and approval oriented Passive- ConventionalConservative, bureaucratic, andDefensive people follow the rules Passive- DependentNonparticipative, centralizedDefensive decision making, and employees do what they are told Passive-AvoidanceNegative reward system andDefensiveavoid accountability
Types of Organizational Culture (cont) Type of Normative Culture Belief Characteristics Aggressive- Oppositional Confrontation and negativismDefensive rewarded Aggressive-Power Nonparticipative, take charge of Defensive subordinates and responsive to superiors Aggressive- Competitive Winning is valued and a win-Defensive lose approach is used. Aggressive- Perfectionistic Perfectionistic, persistent, and Defensive hard-working
Embedding Organizational Culture • Formal statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used for recruiting, selection and socialization • The design of physical space, work environments, and buildings • Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings • Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching and coaching by managers and supervisors • Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g., titles),and promotion criteria • Stories, legends, and myths about key people and events
Embedding Organizational Culture (cont) • The organizational activities, processes, or outcomes that leaders pay attention to, measure, and control • Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises • The workflow and organizational structure • Organizational systems and procedures • Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and retirement of people
A Model of Organizational Socialization Perceptual and Social Processes Phases 1. Anticipatory socializationLearning that occursprior to joining the organization • Anticipating realities about the organization and the new job • Anticipating organization’s need for one’s skills and abilities • Anticipating organization’s sensitivity to one’s needs and values
A Model of Organizational Socialization (cont.) Perceptual and Social Processes Phases • Managing lifestyle- versus-work conflicts • Managing intergroup role conflicts • Seeking role definition and clarity • Becoming familiar with task and group dynamics 2. Encounter Values, skills and attitudes start to shift as new recruit discovers what theorganization is trulylike
A Model of Organizational Socialization (cont.) Perceptual and Social Processes Phases 3. Change and acquisition Recruit masters skills and roles and adjusts to workgroup’s values and norms • Competing role demands are resolved • Critical tasks are mastered • Group norms and values are internalized
Outsider Phases 1. Anticipatory socialization 2. Encounter 3. Change and acquisition • Behavioral Outcomes • Performs role assignments • Remains with organization • Spontaneously innovates and cooperates SocializedInsider • Affective Outcomes • Generally satisfied • Internally motivated to work • High job involvement A Model of Organizational Socialization (continued)
Have you Been Adequately Socialized? • Have you been adequately socialized in this College? • Does your school adequately socialize employees? • How do high levels of socialization impact a new student’s satisfaction? Explain. • What is a new student’s role in the socialization process?
Mentoring The process of forming and maintaining intensive and lasting developmental relationships between a variety of developers (i.e., people who provide career and psychosocial support) and a junior person (the protégé, if male; or protégée if female). Functions of Mentoring • Career Functions- Sponsorship- Exposure and visibility- Coaching- Protection- Challenging assignments • Psychosocial Functions- Role modeling- Acceptance and confirmation- Counseling- Friendship
Developmental Networks Associated with Mentoring Developmental relationship strength Strong ties Weak ties •D2 •D2 Low range D1• D1• •P •P Receptive Traditional Developmental relationship diversity D1• •D2 D1• •D2 • High range • P P D3• •D4 D3• •D4 Opportunistic Entrepreneurial Source: M Higgins and K Kram, “Reconceptualizing Mentoring at Work: A Developmental Network Perspective,” Academy of Management Review, April 2001, p. 270 Key: D, developer; P, protégé.
Building an Effective Mentoring Network • Become the perfect protégé • Engage in 360-degree networking • Commit to assessing, building, and adjusting the mentor network • Develop diverse, synergistic connections • Realize that change is inevitable