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100 Concepts & Final Exam Preparation. American Government. THE 100 CONCEPTS. QUESTION : What is government? . Number 1:. ANSWER : Institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policy. QUESTION : Where and when was the Constitution written? . Number 2:.

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100 concepts final exam preparation
100 Concepts

& Final Exam Preparation

American Government
number 1

QUESTION: What is government?

Number 1:

ANSWER: Institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policy

number 3

QUESTION: What is legislative power?

Number 3:

ANSWER: Power to make laws and to frame public policies

number 4

QUESTION: What is executive power?

Number 4:

ANSWER: Power to execute, enforce, and administer law

number 5

QUESTION: What is judicial power?

Number 5:

ANSWER: Power to interpret laws and to settle disputes that arise within the society

number 6

QUESTION: What is “a set of fundamental customs, rules, traditions and laws that set forth the basic way a government is organized and functions”?

Number 6:

ANSWER: A constitution

number 7

QUESTION: What is a form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority?

Number 7:

ANSWER: Dictatorship or tyranny

number 8

QUESTION: What is a form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people?

Number 8:

ANSWER: Democracy or Republic

number 9

QUESTION: What is a body of people living in a defined territory who have a government with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority?

Number 9:

ANSWER: A state

number 10

QUESTION: What is defined as having supreme power within its own territory; neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority?

Number 10:

ANSWER: Sovereignty

number 11

QUESTION: What did Thomas Hobbes believe about man?

Number 11:

ANSWER: Government is necessary to prevent "the war of every man against every man." (man is inherently evil)

number 12

QUESTION: What did John Locke believe about man?

Number 12:

ANSWER: We give up certain rights and freedoms to promote the safety and well-being of all (man is naturally good)

number 13

QUESTION: Which theory of the origins of government claims that states form when one person or group forces others under their control?

Number 13:

ANSWER: The Force Theory

number 14

QUESTION: Which theory of the origins of government claims that states developed naturally out of the early family?

Number 14:

ANSWER: The Evolution Theory

number 15

QUESTION: Which theory of the origins of government claims that God created the state and gave those of royal birth a right to rule?

Number 15:

ANSWER: The Divine Right Theory

number 16

QUESTION: Which theory of the origins of government claims that people within an area gave up power to the state to promote safety of all?

Number 16:

ANSWER: The Social Contract Theory

number 18

QUESTION: In which type of government is the power to rule held by a small, usually self-appointed elite?

Number 18:

ANSWER: An oligarchy or aristocracy

number 19

QUESTION: In which type of government do all members of society vote on all issues?

Number 19:

ANSWER: A direct democracy

number 20

QUESTION: In which type of government do members have little or no private domain?

Number 20:

ANSWER: Totalitarian Dictatorship

number 21

QUESTION: Which type of government elects individual members to make decisions for the whole?

Number 21:

ANSWER: A representative democracy or Republic

number 22

QUESTION: Which type of government has a centralized government in which all powers belong to a single, central agency, local governments being appointed by the national government?

Number 22:

ANSWER: A unitary government

number 23

QUESTION: Which type of government divides powers between a central government and several local governments?

Number 23:

ANSWER: A federal government

number 24

QUESTION: What term refers to governmental powers being divided on a geographic basis, first discussed by Montesquieu?

Number 24:

ANSWER: Division of powers

number 25

QUESTION: Which government is an alliance of independent states form the central government?

Number 25:

ANSWER: A confederation

number 26

QUESTION: Which government has executive and legislative branches that are separate, independent, and balanced?

Number 26:

ANSWER: Presidential government

number 27

QUESTION: Which government has an executive that is made up of a prime minister and that official's cabinet?

Number 27:

ANSWER: Parliamentary government

number 28

QUESTION: Which characteristic of democracy did both Patrick Henry and Abraham Lincoln state that this nation was based upon?

Number 28:

ANSWER: Liberty or Freedom

number 30

QUESTION: Which characteristics of democracy state that the largest group of people is generally right, but cannot ignore small groups?

Number 30:

ANSWER: Majority rule, minority rights

number 31

QUESTION: Article VI of the Constitution states that what is the supreme law of the land?

Number 31:

ANSWER: Federal law, Treaties and the US Constitution

number 33

QUESTION: What economic system is characterized by the private ownership of capital goods?

Number 33:

ANSWER: Free enterprise system or Free Market

number 32

QUESTION: Which are unalienable rights, human rights, natural rights?

Number 32:

ANSWER: Rights given by God that cannot be transgressed (step on) or abrogated (Cancelled, taken away)

number 34

QUESTION: What economic law states that when supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to drop?

Number 34:

ANSWER: Laws of Supply and Demand

number 35

QUESTION: What are civil rights?

Number 35:

ANSWER: Rights needed to exercise inalienable rights

number 36

QUESTION: What type of government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has certain rights that government cannot take away?

Number 36:

ANSWER: Limited government or constitutional government

number 37

QUESTION: What is a system of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections?

Number 37:

ANSWER: Representative government or Republic

number 38

QUESTION: Which document, also known as the Great Charter, was forced upon King John of England and established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute?

Number 38:

ANSWER: The Magna Carta

number 39

QUESTION: Which document, prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628, challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land?

Number 39:

ANSWER: Petition of Right

number 40

QUESTION: Which document was written by Parliament and agreed on by William and Mary of England in 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs and served as the basis for American politics?

Number 40:

ANSWER: English Bill of Rights

number 41

QUESTION: What is a bicameral legislature?

Number 41:

ANSWER: Legislature composed of two houses

number 42

QUESTION: What is a unicameral legislature?

Number 42:

ANSWER: A legislature composed of one house

number 43

QUESTION: Which group served as the nation’s first national government?

Number 43:

ANSWER: The 2nd Continental Congress

number 45

QUESTION: What document was signed on July 4, 1776, listing grievances against England?

Number 45:

ANSWER: Declaration of Independence

number 46

QUESTION: What basic principle of American government asserts that the people are the source of any and all power, and government can exist only with the consent of the governed?

Number 46:

ANSWER: Popular sovereignty

number 47

QUESTION: What plan of government was adopted by the Continental Congress after the American Revolution, establishing a "firm league of friendship" among the States?

Number 47:

ANSWER: Articles of Confederation

number 48

QUESTION: What is the formal approval of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty?

Number 48:

ANSWER: Ratification

number 49

QUESTION: What is the name given to the group of delegates who drafted the Constitution?

Number 49:

ANSWER: The Framers or Founding Fathers

number 50

QUESTION: What proposal called for a three-branch government with a bicameral legislature in which each State's membership would be determined by its population or its financial support for the central government?

Number 50:

ANSWER: The Virginia Plan

number 51

QUESTION: Which proposal was presented as an alternative to the Virginia Plan and called for a unicameral legislature in which each state would be equally represented?

Number 51:

ANSWER: The New Jersey Plan

number 52

QUESTION: Which plan was a compromise that formed our final system of government?

Number 52:

ANSWER: Connecticut Compromise

number 53

QUESTION: What was the Three-Fifths Compromise?

Number 53:

ANSWER: Agreement at the Constitutional Convention to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining the population of a State.

number 54

QUESTION: What was the Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise?

Number 54:

ANSWER: Agreement during the Constitutional Convention protecting slave holders. It denied Congress the power to tax the export of goods from any State, and, for 20 years, the power to act on the slave trade.

number 55

QUESTION: What name was given to those who supported the ratification of the Constitution?

Number 55:

ANSWER: Federalists

number 56

QUESTION: What name was given to those who opposed ratification of the Constitution?

Number 56:

ANSWER: Anti-Federalists

number 58

QUESTION: Which Constitutional concept states that government and its officers are always subject to the law?

Number 58:

ANSWER: Rule of law

number 59

QUESTION: Which Constitutional concept provides that powers are divided among three independent and coequal branches?

Number 59:

ANSWER: Separation of powers

number 60

QUESTION: Which Constitutional concept provides a system of overlapping powers to permit each branch to check the others?

Number 60:

ANSWER: Checks and balances

number 61

QUESTION: Which Constitutional concept deals with the power to determine the constitutionality of governmental actions?

Number 61:

ANSWER: Judicial review, nullification

number 62

QUESTION: Which word means "declare a government provision illegal, null, and void?"

Number 62:

ANSWER: Unconstitutional

number 63

QUESTION: Which Constitutional concept provides for a division of power between a central government and regional governments?

Number 63:

ANSWER: Federalism

number 65

QUESTION: Who was Publius?

Number 65:

ANSWER: The pseudonym of the writers of The Federalist

number 69

QUESTION: What is the Presidential advisory body (the heads of the executive departments)?

Number 69:

ANSWER: Cabinet

number 70

QUESTION: Which are all powers granted to the National Government by the Constitution?

Number 70:

ANSWER: Delegated powers

number 71

QUESTION: Which are the powers of the National Government that are specifically written in the Constitution?

Number 71:

ANSWER: Expressed powers, or enumerated

number 72

QUESTION: Which powers of the National Government are suggested as "necessary and proper"?

Number 72:

ANSWER: Implied powers

number 73

QUESTION: Which are the powers the National Government has as government of a sovereign state?

Number 73:

ANSWER: Inherent powers

number 74

QUESTION: Which are the powers not granted to the National Government nor denied to the States?

Number 74:

ANSWER: Reserved powers

number 75

QUESTION: Which are the powers that both the National Government and the States possess and execute?

Number 75:

ANSWER: Concurrent powers

number 76

QUESTION: What clause states that the Constitution stands above all other forms of law?

Number 76:

ANSWER: Supremacy Clause, Article VI

number 77

QUESTION: What is a group that seeks to control government for its own self-interest rather than the common good?

Number 77:

ANSWER: Factions, political party, interest group, lobbyist

number 78

QUESTION: What are the three major types of justice, as mentioned in the Preamble?

Number 78:

ANSWER: Distributive, Commutative, Contributive

number 79

QUESTION: What is the importance of Miranda?

Number 79:

ANSWER: The accused to be reminded of rights guaranteed

number 80

QUESTION: What word describes politicians that are still in power even though no longer elected?

Number 80:

ANSWER: Lame-duck

number 85

QUESTION: What is a Congressional election that occurs between presidential election years?

Number 85:

ANSWER: Off-year election

number 86

QUESTION: What are the major qualifications to vote?

Number 86:

ANSWER: Residence, age, no criminal record

number 87

QUESTION: What is the practice of voting for candidates of only one party in an election?

Number 87:

ANSWER: Straight-ticket voting

number 88

QUESTION: What is the practice of voting for candidates of different parties for different offices?

Number 88:

ANSWER: Split-ticket voting

number 89

QUESTION: What cases makeup the Marshall Trilogy?

Number 89:

ANSWER: Johnson v M’Intosh(1823), Cherokee v Georgia (1831), Worcester v Georgia (1832)

number 90

QUESTION: What is the date of national elections?

Number 90:

ANSWER: Tuesday-after-the-first Monday in November

number 91

QUESTION: What are the five amendments dealing with the presidency?

Number 91:

ANSWER: 12th Electoral College, 20th Lame duck, 22nd Reelection, 23rd DC, 25th Succession

number 92

QUESTION: What are the six amendments dealing with the voting?

Number 92:

ANSWER: 15th Black, 17th Senators, 19th Women, 23rd DC, 24th Poll Tax, 26th 18-year olds

number 93

QUESTION: What is the political extension of special-interest groups?

Number 93:

ANSWER: Political action committee (PAC)

number 94

QUESTION: What four amendments deal with rights of the accused?

Number 94:

ANSWER: 4th Searches, 5th due process, 6th trials, 8th bail/punishments

number 97

QUESTION: What is Indian Country?

Number 97:

ANSWER: Reservations, allotments, and dependent communities Or Turtle Island

number 99

QUESTION: What are those activities by which group pressures are brought to bear on legislators, the legislative process, and all aspects of the public policy-making process?

Number 99:

ANSWER: Lobbying

number 100

QUESTION: What are the three types of liberty defined by Rousseau?

Number 100:

ANSWER: Natural liberty, civil liberty, moral liberty