ENGL 354English for Public RelationsWeek 2 Lecturer: Kathryn Davies
Today’s Topics 1. Introduction to Public Relations • Review: What is public relations? Examples • Who uses PR? • Role of public relations 2. How PR Operates • Organization subsystems • PR Roles within a Company • Tasks • Tools 3. Distinguishing public relations from other fields • Advertising • Marketing
What is PR? • Standard accepted definition: “PR is about reputation – the result of what you do, with the aim of earning understanding and support and influencing opinion and behaviour. It is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics.” – Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and UK Chartered Institute of Public Relations Reputation
Case Example • Make a list of all the POSITIVE things she says about the company and the POSITIVE things you see. • In what context do you think this video was made? What prompted the company to make it? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hoOfIR4Vk1o
BP - Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill • Explosion on oil rig couldn’t contain oil gushing up from sea floor. • Oil continued flowing into the sea for months: • 53,000 barrels of oil per day (8,400 m3/d) • Total estimate of oil in Gulf: 4.9 million barrels • 11 people died • Extensive damage to marine wildlife in sea & along the coastal wetlands, to human health, and local tourism industry. • White House report concluded that it wasn’t just a random incident. There were inadequate industry and government practices. Such an event could occur again.
BP - Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill This video/advertisement: • Only mentions oil spill one time. • Presents a friendly face of someone who says she is a LOCAL humanizes the company. • Shows beautiful video/imagery of the area no oil. • Outlines all the positive things they are doing for the area.
Definition • “PR is about reputation – the result of what you do, with the aim of earning understanding and support and influencing opinion and behaviour. It is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics’.”
Additions to Definition • UK Chartered Institute of Public Relations: • PR is defined as “influencing behavior to achieve objectives through the effective management of relationships and communications.” Influencing behavior
I wouldn’t do it: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhahJVkehUc Willie Nelson: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZdgGPtrxk2U
Who uses PR? • Government agencies: local councils, transportation departments, departments of health, etc. • Politicians and individuals • Non-profit organizations • Small businesses your local restaurant • Large, mega-corporations (e.g. IKEA, BP) • Develop relations with financial analysts, government officials and politicians, the local community, employees, consumers and suppliers.
PR can be: • Stand alone function • Located within marketing or human resources or other communicating disciplines Also: • It can operate under guises: corporate communication, corporate affairs, public affairs, communication management, reputation management, etc. etc.
What does PR do? • Companies, organizations and individuals don’t operate in a vacuum. • PR professionals can: • establish strong media relations, • write speeches, • coach clients for interviews, • issue press releases, • conduct surveys, • organize charity events and more.
2. How PR Operates Organization subsystems PR Roles within a Company Tasks Tools
Organization Sub-systems Organizations have to adjust and adapt as they change from within and as the environment changes. • Production subsystems: produce the products or services of an organization. • Maintenance subsystems: work throughout the organization encouraging employees to work together – human resources. • Disposal subsystems: encompass the marketing and distribution of products and services. • Adaptive subsystems: help the organization adjust to its changing environment, such as the strategic planning role. • Management subsystems: control and direct all the other subsystems. • Public relations help these subsystems communicate internally AND help these subsystems external communications. • PR spans boundaries!
PR Roles within Companies 1. Communication management: plans and manages PR programs, advises management, makes communication policies, overseas implementation, does research and evaluation. PLANNERS • Media relations role: highly skilled job often filled by journalist, meet the needs of the media, thoroughly understand media. • Communication role: individual who represents the organization at events or meetings and creates opportunities for management to communicate with internal and external publics. 2. Communication technicians: implement PR programs, e.g. write press releases, organize events, produce web content. DO-ERS
Tasks (Riel, 1995) • Management communication: • Develop shared vision, maintaining trust in leadership, manage change, motivating employees. • Marketing communication • Support the sale of goods/services. Including: advertising, sales promotion, direct mail, personal selling and market-oriented public relations (i.e. publicity!), media relations, events. This is perhaps most involved and important area for PR. • Organizational communication: • Communication activities at corporate level, including environmental communication, investor relations, labour market communication, corporate advertising, internal communication, etc.
Writing and editing: print and broadcast news releases, feature articles, AV scripts, speeches, brochures, etc. Media relations: contacting news media, magazines, trade publications and freelancers. Getting them to publish material about organization. Research: gathering info about public opinion, trends, issues, political climate, legislation, online searches, media coverage, etc. Management and admin: programming and planning with other managers, prioritizing, defining publics, setting goals, developing strategies, managing programs. Special events: arranging news conferences, conventions, openings, ceremonies, fund-raising events, etc. Speaking: gaining speaking platforms, coaching others, speaking to groups. Production: of multimedia materials, photography, layout. Training: media training and public appearance, preparation for others. Helping introduce change in policy, structure, or culture. Contact: liaising with media, community, internal and external groups. Listening, negotiating, managing conflict. Meeting guests and visitors. Counseling: advising management on social, political, etc. issues 10 Elements of PR Work(Cutlip et al., 2000)
Every organization might have a different structure. Some areas of responsibility do not always fit neatly into functional departments. Specialist individuals or teams cannot become solely focused on one task, as overall aims of the PR team must be taken into account. Two departments where PR is intermingled: Marketing Human resources Also sometimes the Legal Department PR Department Structured by Tasks
Tools PR coordinates and implements all public relation materials and events to provide a consistent name awareness and positive marketing image. Including: • Press Releases • Media or press kits: collection of publicity release packaged to gain media attention. • Feature articles: in trade magazines, websites, newspapers • Promotional Events • Promotional Products • Press Conferences • Website Development & Optimization • Brochures • Trade Shows • Dinners and Events • Advertorials
Press Releases and Statements • The Queen's message to President Obama, 14 December 2012 To President Obama I have been deeply shocked and saddened to learn of the dreadful loss of life today in Newtown, Connecticut; particularly the news that so many of the dead are children. Prince Philip joins me in extending our heartfelt sympathy to you and the American people at this difficult time. The thoughts and prayers of everyone in the United Kingdom and throughout the Commonwealth are with the families and friends of those killed and with all those who have been affected by today's events. ELIZABETH R - Buckingham Palace, www.royal.gov.uk • American National Rifle Association’s (NRA) response to the school shooting at Newtown: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZb8EXUrQTo
Promotional Events • My Coke Rewards – consumers collect bottle tops with a code and can collect points to redeem. • Money Back Card! • Oxfam Trailwalker Annual Event
Press Conferences http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6uW-E496FXg
Dinners and Events • Houston Symphony Ball
Advertorials • NPR Announcements: npr.org (played on player, e.g. for the “Morning Edition” program or “All Things Considered”) • Short announcement of company/organization that has sponsored them, perhaps with some information about their services. Usually only 10 seconds.
3. Distinctions Marketing Advertising Promotions Publicity
Distinctions • "... if the circus is coming to town and you paint a sign saying 'Circus Coming to the Fairground Saturday', that's advertising. If you put the sign on the back of an elephant and walk it into town, that's promotion. If the elephant walks through the mayor's flower bed, that's publicity. And if you get the mayor to laugh about it, that's public relations."
Marketing • Marketing is the wide range of activities involved in making sure that you're continuing to meet the needs of your customers and getting value in return. • Marketing is usually focused on one product or service. Thus, a marketing plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. • Principle publics: customers, retailers and distributors. PR concerns publics other than customers: media, employees, community leaders, government regulators, investment analysts, activist groups, etc!!!
Marketing • “Inbound marketing," such as market research to find out, for example: • what groups of potential customers exist, • what their needs are, • which of those needs you can meet, • how you should meet them, etc. Inbound marketing also includes analyzing the competition, positioning your new product or service (finding your market niche), and pricing your products and services. • "Outbound marketing" includes promoting a product through continued advertising, promotions, public relations and sales.
Advertising • Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. • Advertising is focused on one particular product or service. • An advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. • Runs almost exclusively in major mass media (TV, newspapers, magazines, radio). Advertising costs money!
Advertising • Examples of expensive TV ads in the US: • Budwiser ad: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UPAtB6oRR4 • Doritos ad: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QmhhbJIBoNs • These ads were developed for the TV broadcast of the “Superbowl” sports event. 164.1 million viewers. • 30 second ad space cost estimate: $4,000,000 USD • Additional expenses for development!
Advertising • Pay for the space and time of an advertisement (or commercial, which is an insert appearing on radio, television, or the Internet). Full control over the message in advertising. • Media in Public Relations: • More concerned with publicity or stories. • The media outlet you are targeting is under no obligation to run the story in any form. • Editorial coverage generated is not paid for by the organization issuing the news release. • Feature articles, press releases/conferences.
Promotions • Promotion keeps the product in the minds of the customer and helps stimulate demand for the product. • Promotion involves ongoing advertising and publicity (mention in the press). The ongoing activities of advertising, sales and public relations are often considered aspects of promotions. Combination of marketing and PR.
Publicity • PR is concerned with generating good publicity. • Publicity can be defined as: publication of news about an organization or person for which time or space was not purchased. (i.e. there is no control over content, either!) (Lattimore, et al., 2004)
Or GOOD! • Martha Payne • http://neverseconds.blogspot.hk/ • Started blogging about her school lunches (along with the help of her dad). Drew media attention. • Has gone on to write a book, started charity “Mary’s Meals”, visited Malawi (more media coverage!)
Things not mentioned… • Campaigns • Lobbying • Propaganda • Power of and importance of persuasion
PR is About • Reputation • Maintaining goodwill and understanding between publics including inner-organizational relations, customers, employees, buyers, investors, government. • Influencing opinion and behavior Small and large businesses, non-profit organizations, politicians, governments all use PR.