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  1. Semester 1 Final Exam Review2012 ACCELERATED BIOLOGY

  2. Unit 1 SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND BIOCHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1 (OMIT 1:2) CHAPTER 2

  3. 1. What are the 7 characteristics of life? Describe each and give an example of an organism and how it exhibits that characteristic. • Cellular Organization – Made of 1 or more cells. Ex) A Bacterium is 1 cell and humans are composed of trillions of cells. • Reproduction – Sexual or asexual. Organisms make more of their own kind • Metabolism – Sum of all the chemical reactions carried out by an organism in order to obtain and use energy. • Homeostasis – Maintain a stable internal environment. • Heredity – Pass on traits to their offspring. Ex) children resemble their parents • Responsiveness – Responding and adjusting to the environment. • Growth and development – Pass through stages of development. Ex) Tadpole  frog

  4. 2. Describe the parts of the Scientific Method. • Observation – Using your senses to study the world. • Problem – Asking a narrow question based on specific observations. • Hypothesis – Educated guess to answer the problem. • Expressed as an If . . . Then statement • Experiment – Test of your hypothesis • Data – Information you collect during an experiment • Qualitative – describe using words • Quantitative – describe using numbers • Conclusion – State whether the data supports or refutes the hypothesis (Our Pizza Has Extra Delicious Cheese)

  5. 3. Define: experimental variable, controlled variable, control group, experimental groups. • Experimental variable – The variable that is measured by the scientist; a.k.a the dependent variable • Controlled variable – Constants. Things that are the same for both the control and experimental groups. • Control group – Does NOT receive the variable; used as a comparison • Experimental group – Receives the variable

  6. 4. Describe the difference between bar graphs and line graphs.Explain a situation in which you’d use each. • Bar Graph – When you want to compare several things. • Line Graph – Change over time.

  7. 5. What are the 6 rules you must follow when making good graphs? • Independent variable on the x–axis • Dependent variable on the y–axis • Label axes • Include units • Title graph • Use a ruler

  8. 6. Read the following experiment & answer the questions(if an answer doesn’t exist, make improvements). Stewie wanted to see which detergent would make his favorite teddy bear (Rupert) the cleanest. He believed that “Nature’s Best”, an environmentally friendly product would work better than “Clean & Bright” which was the leading brand. First he stained the left arm of Rupert with a mixture of dirt, grape juice and Crayola markers. He then repeated the same procedure on Rupert’s right arm. Stewie then measured out the same amount of water and he proceeded to handwash the stains in a small basin scrubbing for 8 minutes using 10mLs of “Nature’s Best” on the left arm. The whole process was repeated using 10mLs “Clean & Bright” on the right arm.

  9. 6. Read the following experiment & answer the questions(if an answer doesn’t exist, make improvements). • What was Stewie’s hypothesis? • IF I use both Nature’s Best and Clean & Bright detergent to clean dirt, grape juice, and Crayola marker stains from my Teddy bear, THEN Nature’s Best will get my Teddy the cleanest. • What was the independent variable? • Brand of detergent • What was the dependent variable? • How clean Teddy’s arm was

  10. 6. Read the following experiment & answer the questions(if an answer doesn’t exist, make improvements). • What were the constants (controlled variables) in this experiment • Same type of stain, amount of detergent, scrubbing time • What was the control group? • Staining a portion of teddy and not scrubbing it clean. • If Stewie was to graph the data, what would appear on the X axis • Brand of detergent • Y axis? • % of stain removed • What kind of graph is this? • Bar graph

  11. 7. A scientist studied the effects of various water pH levels on the heartrate (heartbeats per minute) of a small crustacean called a Daphnia. He did this by putting Daphnia in solutions varying in pH solutions and counted the number of times their hearts beat in one minute. • a. What would be the independent variable? • pH • b. What would be the dependent variable? • Daphnia’s heartrate

  12. 7. • Sketch a set up of the graph that could be made from his data. Be sure that your graph follows all the rules of “good graphs” • d. Would it be a line graph or a bar graph? Why? • It shows the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

  13. 8. Explain the pH scale and numbering system used.Which numbers are considered acids? Bases? Neutral? • Acids – 0 6.9 • Neutral – 7.0 • Bases – 7.1  14

  14. 9. List the 4 major biological compounds, their building blocks, their major functions, and 3 examples of each.

  15. 10. What is an organic compound? What elements do all organic compounds contain? • All contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to others elements– typically hydrogen, oxygen, and other carbon atoms. • Made from thousands or even hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules. • Examples: • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids

  16. 11. Explain the difference between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Give an example of each. • Monosaccharide – “Single sugar” Ex) glucose • Disaccharide – “Double sugar”Ex) sucrose; table sugar (glucose + fructose = sucrose) • Polysaccharide – “Many sugars” Ex) starch

  17. 12. What is an enzyme? Give 3 examples of enzymes and state their functions. Why are they an important part of our digestion? • Enzymes are protein molecules. They speed up chemical reactions that would otherwise take a long time. This is called catalyzing the reaction. • Lactase breaks down lactose • Catalase breaks down Hydrogen Peroxide • Amylase breaks down starch

  18. 13. What is a substrate? • The substance that an enzyme break down.

  19. 14. Using the diagram below, explain the lock-and-key theory in the space below each graphic

  20. 14. Using the diagram below, explain the lock-and-key theory in the space below each graphic • The shape of the enzyme perfectly fits the shape of its substrate • Like a lock and a key! • Therefore, enzymes will only work on one substrate

  21. 15. What does it mean for an enzyme to become “denatured?”How might this happen? • It changes shape and can no longer bind to its substrate. Therefore, it can’t break it down. • A change in temperature or pH.

  22. 16. What factors affect enzyme action?How does each affect enzyme action? • Temperature • pH • Enzymes operate most efficiently within a certain temperature and pH range.

  23. Unit 2 CELLS AND ENERGY

  24. 17. Examine the graphic below, is it a plant or animal cell? • Animal Cell • No cell wall • No chloroplasts • No central vacuole

  25. 18. Label the organelles below and identify the function of each. • Ribosome – site of protein synthesis • Mitochondria – Produces ATP • Nucleus – Contains the DNA •  Centriole – Produces spindle fibers.(formed from microtubles) • Cell membrane – Regulates whatenters/exits the cell.

  26. 19. Explain several differences between plant and animal cells.Explain several similarities.

  27. 20. Explain diffusion, osmosis, active transport, and passive transport. List some similarities and differences. • Passive Transport – Requires no energy from the cell. Takes advantage of the natural movement of particles (follows the concentration gradient). • Diffusion – Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached. • Osmosis – Diffusion of water. • Active Transport – Requires energy from the cell. Moves material against the concentration gradient (from low to high).

  28. Passive Transport

  29. Active Transport

  30. 21. Create sketches to explain what happens to a cell when it is in a hypotonic solution, a hypertonic solution, and an isotonic solution.

  31. 22. Determine total magnification by completing the table below: • Total Magnification = Objective Lens x Eye Piece

  32. 23. Which one will have the most organisms in the field of view?Which one has the least? • Most – 80x Magnification. It is not zoomed in as much, so the field of view is much larger • Least – 200x Magnification. It is zoomed in much more, so it has a smaller field of view. You will see fewer organisms, but in greater detail.

  33. 24. Label the parts of a microscope and give their functions. Eyepiece Body tube Revolving nosepiece Objective lens Coarse focus Stage Fine focus Diaphragm Light source Power switch

  34. 25. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?Give an example of each. • Prokaryotic – Does not contain a nucleus • Ex) Bacterium • Eukaryotic – Contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles • Plant or animal cell

  35. 26. Write the general equation of photosynthesis. • 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2 • Carbon dioxide + Water  Glucose + Oxygen

  36. 27. What is the purpose of photosynthesis? • Plants convert the light energy from sunlight into chemical energy in the form of Glucose (sugar) • In this process, they release the oxygen we need to breathe.

  37. 28. What effect do increases in temperature, CO2 or light have on the rate of photosynthesis? • Temperature – Rate of photosynthesis will increase and then decrease. • CO2 and Light Intensity – Rate of photosynthesis will increase and then level off.

  38. 29. Write out the equation for cellular respiration. • 6O2 + C6H12O6  6H2O +6CO2 + 36 ATP • Oxygen + Glucose  Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP

  39. 30. What is the purpose of cellular respiration? • The process by which cells produce energy (ATP) from carbohydrates.

  40. 31. Where do respiration and photosynthesis occur in a cell? • Respiration – Mitochondria in animal AND PLANT CELLS • Photosynthesis – Chloroplasts in plant cells

  41. 32.Why is ATP so important to living things? • ATP provides cells the energy they need to carry out ALL activities • Cell division • Growth • Repair • And many, many more . . . Everything!

  42. 33. Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.

  43. Unit 3 EVOLUTION AND CLASSIFICATION

  44. 34. Explain the parts of Darwin's theory of Evolution by natural selection. • The members of a population have heritable variations. • size, coloration, strength, behavior • In each population, many more individuals are produced each generation than the environment can support. • Some individuals possess adaptations that enable them to survive and reproduce more than other individuals. • An increasing number of individuals in succeeding generations possess the adaptation. • The result of natural selection is a population adapted to its local environment.

  45. 34. Explain the parts of Darwin's theory of Evolution by natural selection. Natural Selection Stated Simply . . . • Variation within a population • Struggle for existence • Survival of the fittest • Descent with modification • Change over time

  46. 35. Explain in detail how Darwin would explain the evolution of giraffes from a population of ancestors that had short necks. • Within a population of giraffes, some have a longer neck than others (variation). • Giraffes are always competing for food (struggle for existence). • Those giraffes with a longer neck will be able to reach more food (survival of the fittest). • They will survive to reproduce and pass the beneficial trait on to their offspring (descent with modification). • Over time, the population of giraffes will have more members with longer necks (change over time).

  47. 36. Explain Lamarck's theory of evolution.Include use/disuse and acquired characteristics. • The more an organism uses a structure, the more developed it will become. For example, a giraffe will continually stretch its neck to reach the leaves in the upper canopy of the trees. Over its lifetime, the giraffe will ACQUIRE a longer neck. The giraffe can pass this acquired trait onto its offspring. We now know this is not correct! ACQUIRED TRAITS ARE NOT INHERITED!