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Neonatal Hypotension & Shock. Lange’s 5 th Edition Neonatology: Management, Procedures, On-Call Problems, Diseases, and Drugs 2004. Are shock and hypotension the same thing? Why or Why not?. Are shock and hypotension the same thing? Why or Why not?. Shock is decreased end organ perfusion

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Neonatal Hypotension & Shock


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    1. Neonatal Hypotension & Shock Lange’s 5th Edition Neonatology: Management, Procedures, On-Call Problems, Diseases, and Drugs 2004

    2. Are shock and hypotension the same thing? Why or Why not?

    3. Are shock and hypotension the same thing? Why or Why not?

    4. Shock is decreased end organ perfusion • Shock presents before hypotension • Hypotension represents uncompensated shock • Hypotension is >2SD below normal for age • 1000-1250g SBP49-61 • 1251-1500g SBP 46-61 • 1501-1750 SBP 46-58 • 1751-2000 SBP-48-61 Blood Pressure • For infants <30 weeks gestation mean BP should be at least the gestational age • i.e. 29 week GA=MAP 29 • Make sure cuff size correct (2/3 of upper arm) • Cuff too small=BP • Cuff too large=BP *But……. Do you have a BP cuff?

    5. What are the signs of shock in a neonate?? • Tachycardia • Poor perfusion • Cold extremities with a normal core temperature • Lethargy • Apnea & Bradycardia • Tachypnea • Metabolic acidosis • Weak pulses

    6. Urine Output • What is normal? • Normal ~1-2cc/kg/hour • What can make urine output normal or even high even when an infant is in shock???

    7. Is there a history of Birth Asphyxia? • Birth asphyxia may be associated with hypotension

    8. At delivery was there: • Maternal bleeding • Abrupto placenta • Placenta previa • Excessively delayed cord clamping

    9. Name the Types of Shock in Neonates F G • A • B • C • D • E

    10. Types of Shock in a Neonate • A. Hypovolemic • B. Septic Shock • C. Cardiogenic Shock • D. Neurogenic • E. Drug-induced • F. Endocrine • G. Extreme prematurity

    11. 3 kg infant presents from outside with extreme pallor, bleeding from umbilical cord and is cold with a HR of 200 • What type of shock • Work-up?? • Treatment??

    12. Hypovolemic • Antepartum blood loss (often associated w/asphyxia) • Abruptio placentae • Placenta previa • Twin-twin transfusion • Fetomaternal hemorrhage • Postpartum blood loss • Coagulation disorders • Vitamin K deficiency • Iatrogenic causes (loss of catheter • Birth trauma (liver injury, adrenal hemorrhage, ICH, intraperitoneal hemorrhage

    13. 1 week old 4 kg infant born to a mother with diabetes. Difficulty with IV therefore UVC placed • Doing better til this morning when noted to have a systolic BP of 40, HR of 170, temperature of 34°C • Type of shock • Work-up • Treatment

    14. Septic Shock • Endotoxemia with release of vasodilator substances • Gram-negative often cause but can occur with gram-positive

    15. Infant required bag-mask ventilation at birth presents to nursery noted to be cyanotic, in respiratory distress, cold, clammy without breath sounds of the right • Type of shock • Work-up • Treatment

    16. Cardiogenic Shock • 1. Birth asphyxia • 2. Metabolic problems (eg hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, acidemia) can decrease cardiac output • 3. Congenital heart disease (such as hypoplastic left heart or aortic stenosis) • 4. Arrythmias • 5. Any obstruction of venous return (tension pneumothorax)

    17. Term baby with Apgars of 3 at 3 minutes and 5 at5 minutes noted to have poor perfusion on arrival to nursery • Type of shock • Work-up • Treatment

    18. Neurogenic Shock • Birth asphyxia • Intracranial hemorrhage

    19. 2.5 kg infant with status epilepticus and has been loaded with 20mg/kg of phentobarbital initially then given an additional 5mg/kg q 5 minutes X5 for persistent seizures because no other drugs available to control seizures. After 5th dose noted to be very poorly perfused • Type of shock • Work-up • Treatment

    20. Drug-Induced • Sedatives • Magnesium • Digitalis • Barbituates especially if high dose

    21. Term infant with ambiguous genitalia present at 3 weeks of age with hypotension • Type of shock • Work-up (initial) • Treatment

    22. Endocrine Disorders • Complete 21-hydroxylase deficiency • Adrenal hemorrhage • (What electrolyte abnormalities do you expect in adrenogenital syndrome?? • A. Low sodium, high potassium • B. Hi sodium, high potassium • C. Low sodium, low potassium

    23. 27 week infant noted to have a mean arterial blood pressure of 24 on the new automatic BP machine • Type of shock • Work-up • Treatment

    24. Extreme Prematurity • Hypotension is very common • 40% in 27-29 weeks • 60-100% in 24-26 weeks • Most likely due to adrenocortical insufficiency, poor vascular tone, immature catecholamine responses • Hypotension in ELBW infants is associated w/IVH and needs to be corrected

    25. Work UP • Look for signs of blood loss, sepsis and clinical signs of shock • Complete Blood Count • Decreased hematocrit can occur with bleeding however remember in acute blood loss maybe normal • Increased or decreased WBC or increase in immature cells may point to sepsis

    26. Work-up continued • Coagulation studies (if disseminated intravascular coagulation suspected) • Serum glucose, electrolytes, and calcium levels • Cultures, CRP • Kleihauer-Betke to rule out fetomaternaltransfusion is suspected • Arterial blood gases to look for hypoxia and acidosis

    27. Other studies • CXR • Ultra-sound head • ECG/EKG

    28. Treatment-Determine cause if possible to guide treatment • 1. Volume expansion • 2. Blood replacement • 3. Empiric antibiotics • 4. Inotropes • 5. Steroids • 6. Blood • 7. Chest aspiration • Hypovolemic • Septic • Cardiogenic • Neurogenic • Drug-induced • Endocrine • ELBW Match the treatments with the causes