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Patients Seen, and Interventions Used by Behavioral Health Providers Working in Different Models of Integrated Healthcare in Primary Care Clinics Across the VA. Jennifer S. Funderburk, Ph.D. Stephen A. Maisto, Ph.D. Anne Dobmeyer, Ph.D. Christopher Hunter, PH.D. Acknowledgements.

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jennifer s funderburk ph d stephen a maisto ph d anne dobmeyer ph d christopher hunter ph d

Patients Seen, and Interventions Used by Behavioral Health Providers Working in Different Models of Integrated Healthcare in Primary Care Clinics Across the VA

Jennifer S. Funderburk, Ph.D.

Stephen A. Maisto, Ph.D.

Anne Dobmeyer, Ph.D.

Christopher Hunter, PH.D.

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • This study was funded by the Center for Integrated Healthcare pilot grant
  • This study could not have been completed without the generosity and hard work of behavioral health providers across the VA, leadership, and fellow research staff
objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the different integrated healthcare models behavioral health providers reported working in across the VA nationally
  • Describe the types of patients seen and clinical interventions used regularly across different integrated healthcare models.
  • Discuss the implication of these results on the clinical practice of BHPs within integrated primary care settings.
  • Discuss potential avenues for future clinical intervention research.
purpose of the study
Purpose of the Study
  • National prospective descriptive web-based study examining the types of patients seen and interventions used by VA behavioral health providers (BHPs) integrated into primary care
method
Method
  • Recruitment
    • Contacted implementation coordinators of PCMH (N=143) to obtain email addresses for BHPs in their VA
        • 92 coordinators responded (71% response rate)
          • 33 forwarded recruitment email to BHPs
          • 8 scheduled a teleconference to present research to BHPs
          • 40 provided BHP names and email addresses to researchers
            • Some provided listservs which included non-BHP staff
    • Sent 3 recruitment emails to each BHP asking them to contact us if they were interested
method1
Method
  • Procedure:
    • Interested BHPs replied to the recruitment email and scheduled a 5-minute telephone call, where they completed informed consent, learned how to use the web-based questionnaire, and scheduled a day to complete the study
    • BHPs completed online questionnaires on one randomly assigned day of clinical service
method2
Method
  • Measures:
    • Demographics & Background

(filled out only once):

      • BHP’s background & clinical training
      • Integrated healthcare setting elements
    • Appointment Questionnaire

(filled out after each patient on day of study):

      • Patient Information: gender, age, presenting symptomatology
      • Types of Clinical Interventions Performed
participants bhps
Participants: BHPs
  • 159 BHPs completed the study
    • 21 VISNs represented
    • 452 eligible BHPs contacted
    • Overall 35% response rate
      • Impacted by over-inclusive listservs
      • Slightly higher than typical email response rate 33% (Shih & Fan, 2009)
participants
Participants
  • Integrated Healthcare Models
    • Coordinated Care (N=4)
      • Medical and behavioral health providers largely function independently in separate facilities
      • Maintain separate records, treatment plans, and standards of care.
    • Co-located (N=39)
      • Medical and behavioral health providers are located in same physical space and may share administrative personnel
    • Care Management (N=9)
      • Model of care typically focused on a discrete clinical problem (e.g., depression), incorporating specific pathways using a variety of components
participants1
Participants
  • Integrated Healthcare Models (continued)
    • Co-located Collaborative Care (CCC; N=75)
      • Population health-based model of care focused on all patient populations
      • Medical providers and BHPs share patient information, medical record, treatment plan, and standard of care
      • BHP is embedded within the primary care team, acts as a consultant to PCP
    • Blended--Care Management / CCC (N=28)
      • Incorporates embedded care management aspect of CCC model
      • Care manager and behavioral health consultant are part of primary care team
      • BHC is typically responsible for supervision of the care manager
    • Blended--Co-located / CCC (N=4)
      • Medical providers and BHPs are located in the same physical space, share patient information, medical record, treatment plan, and standard of care
results provider type by model
Results: Provider Type by Model

Other: MS in Psychology, Psychology Interns, NPs, Advanced Practice Nurses

results integrated care elements by model
Results: Integrated Care Elements by Model

* p < .05, † p < .10 in X2 analysis

results theoretical orientation by model
Results: Theoretical Orientation by Model

“Other” orientations: Co-located (21%) CCC (35%)

Blended (32%)

results top 3 patient presenting problems by model
Results: Top 3 Patient Presenting Problems by Model

Next 3 Most Commonly Reported Problems: Insomnia, Chronic Pain, & Coping with a Medical Condition

results differences in interventions for depression
Results: Differences in Interventions for Depression

* Largest difference in how much an intervention is used

results differences in interventions for anxiety
Results: Differences in Interventions for Anxiety

* Largest difference in how much an intervention is used

results overview similarities
Results Overview: Similarities
  • BHPs most likely to be psychologists
  • CBT most common
  • Aspects of integrated healthcare context:
    • Shared medical record
    • Patients use same waiting area as primary care
    • Daily open slots for same-day appointments
    • BHP offices located within primary care clinic
  • Depression, Anxiety & Adjustment top problems
  • Most common interventions among the models:
    • Discussing current techniques for relief
    • Importance of interpersonal relationships
results overview differences
Results Overview: Differences
  • Aspects of integrated healthcare context
    • Staff scheduling BHP and primary care appointments
    • BHPs presenting at primary care staff meetings
  • Top Interventions
    • Co-located: Plan to see patient again
    • CCC: Pleasurable activities
    • Blended-CCC+CM: Educate about CBT
  • Depression Interventions
    • Relapse Prevention (used 22-53%)
  • Anxiety Interventions
    • Discussion of medication adherence (used 38-67%)
limitations
Limitations
  • Only 35% response rate from BHPs
    • Impacted by over-inclusive listservs
  • Only examined one day of primary care
    • Could be non-representative of typical care given
    • Future studies could examine several days and create averages of the data that more accurately reflect what is happening
  • Limited numbers of all models represented
    • Makes across-model comparisons difficult
discussion
Discussion
  • Majority of BHPs are psychologists
    • BHPs can come from a variety of training backgrounds
    • Psychologists are increasingly being recruited to work in integrated primary care settings (Cummings, O’Donohue, Hayes, & Follette, 2001; Frank, McDaniel, Bray, & Heldring, 2004)
  • Depressive and anxious symptomatology are most common within primary care (Funderburk et al., 2011; Bluestein & Cubic, 2009)
  • Evidence suggests the efficacy of problem-solving & CBT interventions; could be helpful to be utilized even more (Catalan et al, 1991; Churchill et al., 2001)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Need for effectiveness research
    • Focused on the interventions regularly used by BHPs
    • Focused on comparing the efficacy in different models of care
  • Need for research on barriers
    • Exploring barriers to BHPs using recommended or preferred interventions (e.g., CBT, problem-solving techniques)
    • Exploring barriers to sites becoming more integrated
  • Need for dissemination
    • Examining how to disseminate findings on evidence-based treatment to providers to help improve practices
    • Examining the current access to trainings on evidence-based treatments