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Keeping Our Sewers Pharmaceutical-Free Thru Public Education, Outreach and Resource Coordination. Susanna Littell Section Manager, Environmental Compliance Orange County Utilities. Overview. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are classified as Emerging Substances of Concern

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keeping our sewers pharmaceutical free thru public education outreach and resource coordination

Keeping Our Sewers Pharmaceutical-Free Thru Public Education, Outreach and Resource Coordination

Susanna Littell

Section Manager, Environmental ComplianceOrange County Utilities

overview
Overview
  • Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are classified as Emerging Substances of Concern
  • Are discharged to sewers by many sources
  • Environmental impacts
  • Limited and restrictive regulations to control discharges
  • Promote education and BMPs to address
pharmaceuticals and personal care products as pollutants

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products as Pollutants

PPCPs include over 14 million chemical compounds:

Prescription and over-the counter drugs

Veterinary drugs

Fragrances

Cosmetics

Sun-screen products

Diagnostic agents

Nutraceuticals (e.g., vitamins)

general ppcp usage

General PPCP Usage

PPCPs are used by:

Individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons

Agribusiness to enhance growth or health of livestock.

ppcp source pathways to the sewer

PPCP Source Pathwaysto the Sewer

Ingested then excreted

Discharged during bathing

Discharged during medication disposal

• 50% of all unused prescriptions

• 80% of all unused antibiotics

ppcp sources

PPCP Sources

  • Manufacturing process waste
  • Wastes from the distributor, pharmacy, hospital and healthcare facility
  • Wastes from residential care facilities
  • Pharmaceuticals from the consumer
  • Excreted metabolites entering wastewater
ppcp environmental pathways

PPCP Environmental Pathways

Pass through septic tanks to aquifer

Pass through WWTPs and enter:

Aquifers

Surface waters

Reclaimed water areas

Biosolid application areas

ppcp discharge standards

PPCP Discharge Standards

14 Drinking-water standards (DWS) or other human or ecological health criteria have been established

Only 1% (250,000) of 14 million chemicals have regulatory controls

POTWs will eventually have discharge limits

CIU category for PPCPs proposed

pharmaceutical controls

Pharmaceutical Controls

RCRA for the disposal of hazardous pharmaceutical wastes produced by pharmaceutical manufacturers and the health care industry

Controlled Substance Act

Criteria includes DEA registration to handle controlled substances in schedules II through V

controlled substances http www deadiversion usdoj gov schedules schedules htm

Controlled Substanceshttp://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/schedules.htm

Schedule I – illegal drugs (ex., heroin, LSD)

Schedule II – Morphine, OxyContin, codeine,

Demerol, Ritalin, amphetamines

Schedule III – Tylenol with codeine, Vicodin

Schedule IV – Benzodiazepines, Valium, Darvon

Schedule V – Codeine cough syrups

unused pharmaceuticals

Unused Pharmaceuticals

Too Many Pharmaceuticals Go Unused…

• PhRMA uses an estimate of 3% of all meds go unused:

– 82% of antibiotics go unused

– 50% of antidepressants

– 50% of beta-blockers

– 20% of pain meds

Waste management compliance rates for some medications are < 20%

• Medicare Part D and others require 30-day supply billings, regardless of need and without ability to refund unused expenses (or to return unused product)

ensure proper waste disposal

Ensure Proper Waste Disposal

Modify SUO to address this discharge

Inspect commercial and industrial facilities to ensure proper waste disposal:

Wastes are returned to manufacturer

RCRA waste are properly disposed of directly

Wastes are manage through a ‘Reverse Distributor”

Recycled or incinerated, depending on waste type, packaging

6 Reverse Distributors in Florida

DEA Website: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov

educate consumers of proper waste disposal

Educate Consumers of Proper Waste Disposal

First…

Develop educational info for customer distribution:

Direct mailing, utility bill stuffers

TV Commercial, radio spots

Direct education (community events Earth Day events, HOAs, senior community centers,…)

Consider using FDEP & AWWA educational materials

provide consumers pharmaceutical waste disposal options

Provide Consumers Pharmaceutical Waste Disposal Options

Second…

Contact the local police department to see if they have a drug collection program

Create your own drug collection program (with required police participation)

Partner local police directly

Partner with police during

Household Hazardous Waste events

Advertise these events!

provide consumers pharmaceutical waste disposal options16
Provide Consumers Pharmaceutical Waste Disposal Options

Lastly, if no collection options exist, or will be provided, consider recommending consumers to:

  • Remove all personal identification from prescription bottles;
  • Mix all unused drugs with coffee grounds, kitty litter, or another undesirable substance, and/or
  • Place this mixture in a sealed container before disposing in the trash, on the day of pick-up.
provide consumers pharmaceutical waste disposal program funding
Provide Consumers Pharmaceutical Waste Disposal Program Funding

Grants are available to Law Enforcement

Agencies to Establish a “Drug Collection for

Proper Disposal” Program

  • The Federal Government offers law enforcement agencies a one-time grant, up to $1,000, to establish a “Drug Collection for Proper Disposal” program. This funding can be used to pay for: collection boxes, signage, evidence handling, incineration, advertising or associated expenses.
sources of information contained in this presentation

Sources of Information Contained in this Presentation

References:

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products as Pollutants (PPCPs), EPA Web Site: http://www.epa.gov/ppcp/