Essentials of accounting for governmental and not for profit organizations
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Essentials of Accounting for Governmental and Not-for-Profit Organizations. Chapter 6: Proprietary Funds -- Internal Service and Enterprise. Overview of Chapter 6. Review of common characteristics of proprietary type funds Internal Service Funds Enterprise Funds

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Essentials of accounting for governmental and not for profit organizations

Essentials of Accounting for Governmental and Not-for-Profit Organizations

Chapter 6: Proprietary Funds -- Internal Service and Enterprise

Overview of chapter 6
Overview of Chapter 6 Organizations

  • Review of common characteristics of proprietary type funds

  • Internal Service Funds

  • Enterprise Funds

  • Review of Fund statements - Proprietary type funds

Review of proprietary type funds
Review of Proprietary OrganizationsType Funds

  • Use accrual basis

    • Match Revenues and Expenses, including depreciation

    • Emphasis on income measurement

  • Balance sheet includes both short term and long-term assets and liabilities

  • Economic Resources Measurement Focus:

    • Can handle related construction and debt service within the proprietary funds

  • Typically do not record budgets or encumbrances

Proprietary fund closing entries
Proprietary Fund OrganizationsClosing Entries

  • All revenue and expense type accounts as well as transfers are closed to Net Assets

  • Net Assets are divided into three categories:

    • Invested in Capital Assets net of Related Debt

    • Restricted (if needed) and

    • Unrestricted for the remainder

Internal service funds
Internal Service Funds Organizations

  • Used for sales of service primarily to others within the government unit on a cost reimbursement basis

    • Purpose is to pool resources for more efficient operations

    • More efficient to have separate department responsible for these types of services and charge their costs back to other departments

Internal service funds1
Internal Service Funds Organizations

  • Examples of internal service fund uses:

    • Motor pool,

    • Telecommunications,

    • Maintenance,

    • Purchasing /supplies/central stores,

    • Insurance/risk management

Self insurance and risk management
Self-Insurance and OrganizationsRisk Management

  • Governments have a choice of using the GF or an Internal Service fund for self-insurance activities

  • If an ISF is used, the amount of premium is treated as a revenue to the ISF and as an Expense or Expenditure to other funds provided that the amount paid is a reasonable amount calculated in a manner that will yield an amount roughly equal to the amount of average long-term claims

Reasonable premium requirement
“Reasonable Premium” Requirement Organizations

  • The purpose of this accounting requirement is to prevent governments from managing their budgets by hiding part of government fund resources in a proprietary fund when they have a surplus and underfunding in other years

  • Otherwise, treat payments as Transfers

Enterprise funds

Used for sales of service primarily to others Organizationsoutside the government unit such as the general public

Mandatory if:

Have debt backed solely by fees and charges

Legally required to charge fees that will recover the cost, including depreciation

Government policy of requiring cost recovery from fees

Enterprise Funds

Use of enterprise fund
Use of Enterprise Fund Organizations

  • Not mandatory, but permitted if:

    • None of the three mandatory requirements are met, but management would like to see the activity’s “net cost” after depreciation expense

    • Implication—bus system or swimming pool charging fees can be handled in government or proprietary type fund

Common examples of enterprise funds
Common Examples of Enterprise Funds Organizations

  • Usually in mandatory enterprise funds

    • Water utilities

    • Gas or electric utilities

    • Airports

  • Mandatory or permissive

    • Bus systems

    • Swimming pools

    • Hospitals, parking garage, toll roads, public housing

    • Civic Centers

Bonds in enterprise funds

Revenue Bonds Organizations: Revenue bonds promise bondholders that enterprise revenues will be used to make payments. These are listed as Bonds Payable in the enterprise funds.

General obligation bonds:

These are backed by the full faith and credit of the government (i.e. the taxing authority of the government.

Bonds in Enterprise Funds

General obligation bonds use to finance enterprise activities
General Obligation Bonds Use to Finance Enterprise Activities:

  • This may be done to get a better credit rating (lower interest cost)

  • If this is just a formality, the bonds are still listed as a liability in Enterprise Fund

  • Bonds are omitted from Enterprise Fund only if the government agrees and fully intends to pay the bonds from other resources

Solid waste landfills enterprise fund
Solid Waste Landfills Activities:Enterprise Fund

  • Accrual basis and closure costs

    • Costs of complying with environmental protection laws after closure have to be estimated and accrued as a cost of operating the landfill during its life.

  • Each year accrue:

    Post-closure expenses XX

    Liability for post-closure expenses XX

    (units of production method used to determine $)

  • After closure, as maintenance costs are incurred:

    Liability for post-closure expenses XX

    Cash XX

Solid waste landfills governmental activities
Solid Waste Landfills – Governmental Activities Activities:

  • Alternatively, some governments may operate landfills within the Governmental Activities.

  • In this case, the long-term portion of any liability for closure and post-closure care costs will appear in the government-wide statement of net assets and the periodic expense in the government-wide statement of activities.

Segment disclosures
Segment Disclosures Activities:

  • Segment disclosures help make sure information is not overly aggregated

  • When segment disclosures are made the government should disclose:

    • The type of activity/service being reported

    • And provide condensed financial statements for that activity

When segment disclosures are required
When Segment Disclosures are Required Activities:

  • Segment disclosures are needed when business activities are combined in a single fund or in the nonmajor fund column.

  • They are required if:

    • There is a separate bond issue for a portion of the activities -- such as a bond on water only when water is in a city water and light fund.

Statement of net assets
Statement of Net Assets Activities:

  • Must classify assets and liabilities by current/noncurrent

  • Net assets 3 categories: unrestricted, restricted, and capital assets net of related debt

    • Restricted means restricted by external parties or by legislation, including legislation by the government’s governing body

Statement of revenues expenses and changes in fund net assets
Statement of Revenues, Expenses and Changes in Fund Net Assets

  • Format:

    • Revenues

    • - Expenses

    • = Operating NI

    • - nonoperating revenues and expenses

    • - capital contributions and transfers

    • = Change in Net Assets

    • + Beginning Net Assets

    • = Ending Net Assets

Cash flow statements

Commercial Statements Assets

May use Direct or Indirect Methods for Cash Flows from Operating Activities

Interest and dividends received are reported in operating section

Interest payments are reported in operating section

Purchases or sales of long-term assets are reported in investing

The reconciliation of income and cash flows from operations starts with Net Income

Proprietary Fund Statements

Direct Method is required for Cash Flows from Operating Activities

Interest and dividend revenue is reported in investing section

Interest Payments are reported in capital or noncapital related financing section

Fixed asset transactions are reported in capital related financing

The reconciliation of income and cash flows from operations starts with Operating Income

Cash Flow Statements

Four categories of cash flows
Four Categories of Assets Cash Flows

1. Operating

  • Interest and dividend revenue not in this section as it is in FASB’s (eg. Business) Statement of Cash Flows.

    2. Capital Related Financing

  • FASB’s Statement of Cash Flows show only principal payments on debt in financing, GASB’s approach includes principal and interest payments here. Purchases of long-term assets are here not in investing per business Statements of Cash Flows.

    3. Noncapital Related Financing

  • short term loans and repayments including interest

    4. Investing

  • Investments and their associated revenues. Does not include purchase and sale of other long-term assets.

Proprietary funds and the government wide statements
Proprietary Funds and the Government-wide Statements Assets

  • Enterprise Funds are “Business-Type Activities”.

    • They are included in the Government-Wide statements without adjustment.

  • Internal Service Funds are generally classified as “Governmental Activities”

    • Their assets and liabilities are included in the Statement of Net Assets.

    • Only revenues and expenses on outside sales are reported in the Statement of Activities.