Anabolic androgenic steroids
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Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids. Sierra Boley Katie Pohl Grady Brown 04/20/2012. Definition of AS. Anabolic Steroid – Steroid hormones that increase muscle mass and also have masculinizing, or testosterone-like, properties Not to be confused with corticosteroids – anti-inflammatory.

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Anabolic androgenic steroids

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

Sierra Boley

Katie Pohl

Grady Brown


Definition of as
Definition of AS

Anabolic Steroid – Steroid hormones that increase muscle mass and also have masculinizing, or testosterone-like, properties

Not to be confused with corticosteroids – anti-inflammatory

Examples of anabolic steroids
Examples of Anabolic Steroids

  • Anadrol(oxymetholone)

  • Dianabol (methandrostenolone)

  • Winstrol(stanozolol)

  • Deca-Durabolin (nandrolone)

  • Oxandrin(Oxandrolone)

  • Depot-Testosterone

Anabolic androgenic steroids

  • Occasionally used to help AIDS patients

    gain weight and to treat some types

    of severe anemia

  • Used by athletes to boost performance

  • Used by ordinary people to enhance appearance

  • Since 1996, use in children has increased 39% among 8th graders, 67% among 10th graders and 84% among seniors in high school

  • 1 out of 16 high school students have used


  • They come in various forms:

    • Pills

    • Creams

    • Patches

    • Tablet or drops placed under the tongue

    • Injectables


Background and history
Background and History

All structurally similar to testosterone

Were developed to help build muscle mass and enhance athletic performance

Designer Steroids – enhance anabolic, minimize androgenic effects

Also chemically designed to minimize 1st pass metabolism to retain adequate bioavailability

1954 world weightlifting championship
1954 World Weightlifting Championship

  • Soviet Union using testosterone

  • Dr. John Ziegler – American Physician

    • Didn’t like strong androgenic effects

    • Ciba – Dianabol– orally active compound with enhanced anabolic properties

    • Breakfast of Champions

    • Ziegler regretted helping to create monster


  • Mid 1980s – Steroids were reaching high school level

  • U.S. Congress (1988 & 1990) – Anabolic Control Act of 1991

    • Classified 27 anabolic steroids as Schedule III

    • Also, banned by many amateur and pro sports organizations

      • NFL, MLB, NCAA, & International Olympic Committee

Specific patterns and combinations
Specific Patterns and Combinations

  • Endurance athlete and sprinters – low doses

  • Bodybuilding and strength athletes – high doses

    • May take up to 100 times more than therapeutic dose


  • Often used in patterns called cycling

  • Cycles – typically 6-12 weeks in duration with periods of abstinence between successive cycles

  • Use cycles (based on anecdotal information):

    • To minimize development of tolerance

    • Reduce occurrence of adverse side effects

    • To maximize performance at an athletic event

    • To avoid detection of a banned substance


  • Cycling sometimes combined with pyramiding

  • Pyramiding – steroid dose is gradually increased until the midpoint of the cycle, then gradually decreased as the cycle is completed

  • Thought to reduce possible withdrawal effects resulting from sudden termination


  • Simultaneous use of two or more anabolic steroids

  • Often done by combining a short-acting oral steroid with a long-acting injectable preparation

  • They think it enhances effectiveness, but not true

Pharmacology of as
Pharmacology of AS

  • Mechanism of Action not fully understood

  • Testosterone and other androgens are agonists at androgen receptor

  • Receptor is located in the cytoplasm of cell in inactive state

  • Androgen molecules diffuse across cell membrane, bind and activates receptor

Pharmacology cont
Pharmacology Cont.

  • Activated hormone-receptor complex translocates into cell nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of specific genes, depending on cell type

    • Haven’t yet identified specific muscle cell genes that are turned on by androgens

    • But overall effect is to increase protein synthesis and growth of the muscle

Pharmacology cont1
Pharmacology Cont.

  • Testosterone converted enzymatically to two other bioactive hormones

  • In some tissues – 5α reductase converts T to dihydrotestosterone(DHT), which also has potent androgenic effects

    • Some synthetic AS were designed to avoid this metabolic reaction because it decreases ratio of anabolic to androgenic activity

  • Aromatase converts T to estradiol in a chemical reaction called aromatization

    • Extremely undesirable – leads to feminizing side effects

    • Some synthetics modified to resist aromatization

Pharmacology cont2
Pharmacology Cont.

  • Recent evidence that AS treatment can induce androgen receptor expression in muscle

  • Increasing the # of androgen receptors in the tissue would allow steroids to produce greater anabolic effects than they would in the presence of normal receptor expression

  • At high levels, androgens act as antagonists to glucocorticoid hormones

    • In muscle, GCCs are catabolic – produce an overall decrease in protein synthesis and an increase in protein breakdown

    • A 2nd M of A for AS could be their anticatabolic effects via glucocorticoid antagonism

Adverse side effects

Adverse Side Effects

Table of side effects
Table of Side Effects

  • For Girls:

  • Facial hair

  • Deep voice

  • Increased body hair

  • Irregular periods

  • Increased appetite

  • Enlarged clitoris

  • For Boys:

  • Breasts

  • Shrunken testicles

  • For Both:

  • Severe acne

  • Baldness

  • Liver abnormalities and tumors

  • Angry outbursts (“roid rage”) or aggressive behavior

  • Paranoia

  • Hallucinations

  • Psychosis

  • Blood clots

Behavioral debate
Behavioral Debate

Do steroids cause increased irritability and aggression?

Do users develop dependence on anabolic steroids?


Dependence Criteria

  • DSM commonly reported signs of dependence

    • Withdrawal when stopped

    • Taking more than originally intended

    • Inability to cut down or control usage despite a desire to do so

    • Pre-occupation

    • Continued Substance use despite problems

    • Replacement of other activities with substance abuse

  • Fatigue

  • Depressed Mood

  • Insomnia

  • Restlessness

  • Anorexia

  • Decrease libido

  • Dissatisfaction with body image

  • Cravings

Withdrawal Symptoms

Dependence cont
Dependence Cont.

  • Absence of large-scale controlled studies hamper the evaluation of AS dependence

  • No published reports of self-administration by animals of testosterone or any other anabolic steroids

  • Can produce rewarding effects

    • Positive Reinforcement – performance boosting, better body image

  • Cravings are relatively weak

Why care
Why care?

  • Dangerous physical and psychological effects

  • Can stop growth and have voice changes

  • After stopping, people can experience depression and moodiness

  • Injectable steroids have an AIDS risk by sharing needles

  • Steroids without prescriptions may be faulty or not be steroids at all

Steroids before and after
Steroids Before and After