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The Role of Capacity Building for Livestock Extension and Development in Lao PDR Viengxay Photakoun Supervisors: Dr Joanne Millar Dr Digby Race
Presentation outline • Purpose of research • Research Questions • Research Methodology • Results and Recommendations • Questions from you
Purpose of the research To explore the role of staff capacity building to improve livestock extension and farmer outcomes
Research Questions • What capacity building methods have been used to support livestock extension staff in upland areas? • How effective have these methods been in delivering positive outcomes, and why? • What factors influence the effectiveness of capacity building outcomes? • How can capacity building of livestock extension staff be strengthened? • What are the implications for the Lao government?
Research Methodology Data collection First fieldwork [Mar 2008] Semi-structured interviews with 14 project managers and 2 provincial coordinators Second fieldwork [Oct – Dec 2008] Semi structured Interviews with 10 District of Agriculture and Forestry Office heads and deputy heads Semi-structured interviews with 20 district extension staff Rating of eight key CPB methods by 30 district extension staff. Data analysis Analysis of themes and patterns from qualitative interviews, cross-referencing of themes with descriptive quantitative data.
List of projects • ADP Agriculture Development Project • CBSLSP Capacity Building for Smallholder Livestock Systems Project • CRWRC Christian Reformed World Relief Committee • FLSP Forage and Livestock System Project • Lao-EU Strengthening of Livestock Services and Extension • LFSP Livestock Farmer Support Project • LEAP Lao Extension Approach Project • L4PP Forage Legumes for supplementing village pigs in Lao PDR • LDP Livestock Development Project • NRBDSP Nam Ghum River Basin Development Sector Project • PRONAE Programme National Agro-ecologies • SHDP Small Holder Development Project • SPFSP Special Programme for Food Security and South – South Cooperation Project • HI Heifer International Project
Interview Questions 1. What role have you played in capacity building for your project/district? 2. What methods have you used for capacity building? 3. What methods were most effective and why? 4. What have you learnt about the different methods for capacity building (eg factors)? 5. How can capacity building of staff be strengthened to improve outcomes for your project/district?
Rating of CPB methods by DAFEO staff Rating (1-5) from not effective to highly effective Livestock competencies used: • Knowledge and skills in livestock production • Knowledge and skills in forage development • Knowledge and skills in livestock management • Knowledge and skills in animal health • Knowledge and skills in livestock marketing • Knowledge of livestock extension (LEA methods) and theory • Livestock extension skills in and out of the field
Summary • The most common capacity building methods of greatest value to all interviewees include workshop training, on-the –job learning, cross visit and study tours, staff meeting and mentoring. • District livestock extension staff on the whole prefer on the job learning and on site training, backed up by workshops, mentoring, staff meetings and cross visit. • A key learning from this research is that a combination of capacity building methods is recommended to spread the cost, cater for staff learning needs and take advantage of the relative strengths and weaknesses of each method (covered in last years presentation)
Factors influencing the effectiveness of CPB Availability of funding for CPB Support from DAFO/Project Managers Opportunities for DAFO staff to undertake formal study Family support Staff ownership and motivation Influence of farmers and farmer groups Having good examples in the field Representation of women and ethnic groups Staff relocation
Factors influencing the effectiveness of CPB • Availability of government funding “….my district is located in city and without any project coming to work with us….we lack opportunities to build the capacity for my staff….we lack funds to support new volunteers and contract staff.” (DAFEO head 2) “….in my district I received some funds from the government but I used these funds for administration activities, so I did not have enough funds to provide training or support staff who study at Uni.” (DAFEO head 9)
Factors influencing the effectiveness of CPB • Support from DAFO/Project Managers “….I give advice to staff who are not experienced in working with farmers (using new technology). Sometimes in the village meeting I help them resolve problems.” (DAFEO head 4) “..giving green light to district staff to do their job can make the activities in the district work best, because district staff need to think independently and have high responsibility for their job, rather than controlling them.” (DAFEO deputy head 1)
How to improve CPB from interviewees • Improving the role of DAFEO heads in building staff capacity • Building teamwork using mentoring • Providing opportunities for study • Working with NGOs to extend capacity building to more staff • Giving equal opportunity to staff • Increase opportunities for staff to become permanent in the government
How to improve CPB from interviewees • Building teamwork using mentoring “…in general, development teams mix seniors and younger district extension in one team. They are able to address the limitation points because each person has different personality, so they can learn from each other.” (Project Manager 11)
How to improve CPB from interviewees • Working with NGOs to further build capacity for livestock extension “…the government projects need to cooperate with stakeholders; development organisations, donors and NGOs, to increase capacity building outcomes…from my experience I believe that this approach works best, rather than working individually.” (Project Manager 2)
How to improve CPB from interviewees • Building the capacity for staff to become permanent government staff. “…I need district staff to work with this project until it finished, so I have made a regulation with the head of DAFEO that district staff who are working with this project will not change until this project has finished, because I want to building the capacity of district staff for the DAFEO head in order to work in their district.” (Project Manager 8)
How to improve CPB from interviewees • Rewarding staff equally (being fair) • Stimulates motivation • Avoids conflict “DAFEO heads should be careful in reorganising staff inside the district and provide support equitably to staff.” (DAFEO head 4)
Summary of my recommendations • Use combination of CPB methods at strategic times • Need to select representative, active and motivated staff • Build effective teams • Reward equally, be fair to all staff • Form partnerships with NGOs
Thank you • My sincere thanks to the Lao government’s NAFES, NAFRI, MAF and MOE for approving my study in Australia. • I wish to express my profound gratitude to my supervisors Dr Joanne Millar and Dr Digby Race from CSU. • I am grateful to my sponsor the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), John Allwright Fellowship (JAF) and AusAID in enabling my Masters in Albury, NSW, Austalia. • Many thanks to all of the interviewees who shared their knowledge and ideas.