Renewable Energy Solar/Photovoltaic Systems What the Future Holds for Arizona’s Schools David Peterson Assistant Superintendent Scottsdale Unified
Stepping up to solar power Passive solar design Energy efficiency Solar electricity (photovoltaics)
There is one energy source that is free and inexhaustible. It’s like a giant nuclear reactor – only this one is located 93 million miles away.
Basic Principal of Solar Power Solar cells convert sunlight to electricity without any moving parts, noise, pollution, radiation, or maintenance. The conversion of sunlight into electricity is made possible with the special properties of semi conducting materials.
How Solar Cells Work Photons from the sun shine on the solar cell. The photons actually penetrate into the silicon and randomly strike silicon atoms. When a photon strikes a silicon atom, it ionizes the atom, giving all its energy to an outer electron and allowing the outer electron to break free of the atom. The photon disappears from the universe and all its energy is now in the form of direct electron movement. 9
Free Electricity From Sun The DC current is taken from the solar cells and manipulated into an AC waveform through an inverter. Inverters sense the voltage and frequency of the AC systems that they are attached to and begin to “push” current against that system.
Solar Modules Specifications (typical): Size: 60” x 33” x 1.8” Weight: 25 to 40 lbs Voltage: 17 to 36 vdc Watts: 170 to 205 Major Manufacturers: BP Solar Evergreen Kyocera Mitsubishi Sharp Solar World
New York City, Long Island and NJ get 70% of the amount of sun Phoenix gets Summer peaking load (air conditioning) + high utility rates + lots of sun in the summer + dire need of grid support = some of the best places in the USA for Solar power!
30 yr average kWh per sq. meter per year in: • San Diego, Ca……….. 2044 • Phoenix, Az ………….2336 • Syracuse, NY ………..1533 • Binghamton, NY …….1496 • New York City ………1642 • Seattle, Wa …………..1387
Arizona: The Persian Gulf of Solar Power in America Arizona Produces Solar 123,500 MWh PV Per Year
The Solar Resource The Definition of Full Sun is 1000 Watts/square meter Under these conditions: In 1 hour 1 square meter of the Earth’s sur face intercepts 1 Kilowatt-hour of solar energy.
Angle of Inclination • The angle that a Solar Module is positioned above the Horizon. • What is the Tilt of the Panels in the Array? The ideal Tilt for our Array is equivalent to our Latitude Location. The Closer to the Latitude Tilt we get the more Electricity we will Generate.
Net-Metering State regulations that permits the sale of our unused production of Solar Electricity to the utility for the same price per KWH as we purchase it. Over the course of the year we cannot produce and sell more electricity than we consume.
Environmental Benefits • 30-year Lifetime Emission Savings • 50 kW System
Congress Passed Investment Tax Credit (10-7-08) • The solar investment tax credit covers 30% of PV system costs. • The credit will be offered for a period of eight years (until 2017).
ARIZONA TAX CREDIT Commercial/Industrial Solar Energy Tax Incentives Program Summary (Established under A.R.S. §41-1510.01) • An Arizona income tax credit is offered to businesses that install one or more solar energy devices in their Arizona facilities. The tax credit is equal to 10% of the installed cost of the solar energy device not to exceed $25,000 in credits for one building in a single tax year and $50,000 total credits per business per tax year. Tax credits can be used to offset Arizona income tax liability; any unused credit amounts can be carried forward for a five-year period. The tax credit is available for tax years beginning from and after December 31, 2005 through December 31, 2012.