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  1. Making the Case for Community Based Transitional Care From Prison to the Community Emily Wang, MD Transitions Clinic Southeast Health Center San Francisco Department of Public Health

  2. Outline • Brief overview of post-release care • Description of Transitions Clinic • Preliminary Data from Transitions Clinic • Future Plans • Wrap up

  3. Prisoners return to the community • 11 million people are released from prison and jail each year in the US • 1500 parolees are released to SF county/yr from 33 California prisons • One third return to Bayview-Hunters Point

  4. Burden of Disease in Returning Parolees • 30-40% have a chronic physical or mental health condition including diabetes, hypertension, asthma, depression

  5. HEALTH PROBLEMS OF PRISONERS AND FORMER PRISONERSCommunicable Diseases 25% of all HIV-infected people, 30% of people with hepatitis C virus infection, and 40% of those with tuberculosis served time Hammett TM, Harmon MP, Rhodes W. Am J Public Health 2002; 92: 1789-1794.

  6. HEALTH PROBLEMS OF PRISONERS AND FORMER PRISONERSChronic Diseases Disease State Prison NHANES-III Asthma 8.5 7.8 Diabetes 4.8 7.0 Hypertension 18.3 24.5 *rates per 100 patients (NCCHC report in April, 2002: Health Status of Soon to be Released Inmates)

  7. HEALTH PROBLEMS OF PRISONERS AND FORMER PRISONERSMental Illness • 16% of state prisoners report a mental condition or an over night stay in a psychiatric hospital • Rates of depression, dysthymia, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety are all higher in prison populations compared to the general population

  8. HEALTH PROBLEMS OF PRISONERS AND FORMER PRISONERSSubstance Abuse • While 13% of newly sentenced state prisoners in 1985 were convicted of drug offenses, by 1990 this had increased to 32% • 65-80% of prisoners are involved in some aspect of substance use and abuse • But only 10-25% have ever been treated for substance abuse

  9. Where do parolees access care upon release? • Recently released parolees are more likely to use the emergency department for health care • Less than 10% received meds and a follow up appointment upon release • 80-90% of returning prisoners do not have any form of medical insurance • In California, transitional care is only provided to patients with HIV or severe psychiatric disorders

  10. Increase risk of death upon release • Risk of death was 12 times higher in prisoners compared to age matched controls in the first 2 weeks after release • Leading causes of death were overdose, cardiovascular disease, homicide, suicide, and cancer

  11. Creating a model for care • Southeast Health Center • Roundtable meeting • Opened in January 2006 as a half day/wk clinic • Staffed by 2 volunteer physicians and Southeast Health Center staff

  12. What is Transitions Clinic? • Community based intervention that provides transitional care and serves as a primary care medical home for parolees with chronic medical conditions • First clinic of its kind in the nation and a model for delivery of care to this population

  13. Parolee Specific Care at Transitions Clinic • Targeted care for newly released prisoners with chronic medical conditions in the first 2 weeks after release • Physicians with experience caring for patients with a history of incarceration • Culturally-competent community health worker to assist with basic case management • Partnerships with existing community organizations that serve formerly incarcerated individuals

  14. Transitions Flow Chart Parole and Community Team meeting Chronic medical condition? Age over 50 years old? Needs refill of medications? • Transitions Clinic, • Southeast Health Center Primary care doctor? Yes No Referredbackto regular PMD Transitions Clinic OR new PMD

  15. Referrals • On site dentist, psychiatrist, podiatrist, laboratory • On site social worker for disability and Medi-Cal evaluation • Community partners that provide • Employment and educational resources • Substance abuse treatment and counseling • Housing • Child support services • Legal services

  16. Transitions Clinic: Preliminary data • 180 signed for appointments; 100 patients seen • 30% from Bayview-Hunters Point; 10% from Visitation Valley; 24% homeless • 80% seen previously; 14% with previous PMD in CHN • 53% first time show rate; 69% follow up rate

  17. Transitions Clinic: Chronic Diseases

  18. Bottom Line • Our patients are chronically ill and previously received care in the safety net system • They are seen at Transitions Clinic soon after release and stay in primary care

  19. How is Transitions Clinic supported? • Community Health Worker: • San Francisco Foundation • Catholic Health Care West • California Endowment • Other Staff • In-kind contribution • Volunteer physicians • Evaluation • California Policy Research Center • California Endowment

  20. Future Plans: Evaluation of Transitions Clinic • To determine whether targeted medical services for former prisoners improve health access measures • Primary care utilization • ED and psychiatric emergency service utilization • Insurance status • Hospitalization • Return to prison or jail • Findings to be presented to California Legislators

  21. Difficulties encountered • Duplication of care in prison; limited records • Fragmentation of care (substance abuse treatment) • Medications --regimens not on formulary or not standard of care --chronic pain medications • Transitional care: where are they going to get care? • Funding

  22. Summary • Transitions Clinic is a unique model of care for parolees with medical conditions • Preliminary data demonstrates that it serves transitional needs and as a medical home for parolees • Upcoming evaluation will demonstrate whether • parolee specific care improves health access measures • this model should be replicated in other community settings • this model is cost effective

  23. Access to Usual Source of Care by Chronic Disease Status in SF county jail P<0.0001

  24. Factors associated with having access to a usual source of care • Adjusted for covariates physical health functioning MOS-36, age, monthly income • Sample weighted using 2001 rates of HIV in SFCJ, (2% of all inmates)

  25. Access to care of SF jail population compared to general population Access to care of San Francisco population