Geographic information systems
Download
1 / 29

Geographic Information Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 104 Views
  • Uploaded on

Geographic Information Systems. Babu Ram Dawadi, IOE Pulchowk Campus. Definition. A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based system that facilitates the phases of data entry, data analysis and data presentation especially in cases when we are dealing with georeferenced data.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Geographic Information Systems' - rue


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Geographic information systems

Geographic Information Systems

Babu Ram Dawadi, IOE Pulchowk Campus


Definition
Definition

  • A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based system that facilitates the phases of data entry, data analysis and data presentation especially in cases when we are dealing with georeferenced data.

  • A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based mapping tool that enables geographic or spatial data capture, storage, retrieval, manipulation, analysis, modeling and presentation of the real world scenario. Basically, GIS is working on the principle of geography. Geography or GIS is now proving its potential and widely accepted by inter-disciplinary experts at various levels to better manage the earth’s resources.


Def…

  • GIS is a System of computer software, hardware and data, and personnel to help manipulate, analyze and present information that is tied to a spatial location –

    • spatial location– usually a geographic location

    • information– visualization of analysis of data

    • system– linking software, hardware, data

    • personnel– a thinking explorer who is key to the power of GIS





Gis software
GIS Software

  • The geoprocessing engines of GIS

  • Major functions

    • Collect, store, mange, query, analyze and present

  • Key terms

    • Program – collections of instructions to manipulate data

    • Package– integrated collection of programs

    • Component – self-contained, reusable software building blocks


Functionality architecture
Functionality Architecture

User Interface Applications

Geographic Tools

Analysis

Output

Translation

Customization

Editing

Display

Data

Manager

Spatial

Reference

Data Access

Vector

Raster


Product families

Autodesk

ESRI

Intergraph

MapInfo

Smallworld

Viewer

AutoCAD LT

ArcReader

GeoMedia Viewer

ProViewer

Custom

Desktop

World

ArcView

GeoMedia

MapInfo Professional

Spatial Intelligence

Profess-ional

AutoCAD / Map

ArcEditorArcInfo

GeoMedia Pro

MapInfo Professional

Smallworld GIS

Hand-held

OnSite

ArcPad

IntelliWhere

MapXtend

Scout

Database Server

GIS Server

ArcSDE

Uses Oracle Spatial

SpatialWare

Part of Smallworld GIS

Component

In several products

Map

Objects

Part of GeoMedia

MapX, MapJ

Part of Smallworld GIS

Internet

MapGuide

ArcIMS

GeoMedia Web Map, GeoMedia Web Enterprise

MapXtreme, MapXSite

Smallworld Internet Applic- ation Server

CAD

AutoCAD Map

In several products

In several products

In several products

Part of Smallworld GIS

Product Families


Gis software classification
GIS Software Classification

Number of

Users

Cost

Internet

Viewer

Component

Hand-held

Desktop

Professional

Functionality


Arcsde unifies spatial data access
ArcSDE Unifies Spatial Data Access

  • ArcGIS Desktop Applications

  • ArcIMS , ArcExplorer, ArcPad

  • MapObjects

  • Third-Party applications

ArcSDE Services

SQL Server

Oracle

Informix

IBM DB2


First spatially enable the data
First, Spatially Enable The Data

Data Is Independent of Application

ArcSDE

ArcIMS

ArcGIS

SQL Server

High Availability, High Performance, Secure, Scalable


Gis internet enterprise today
GIS Internet Enterprise Today

Applications

Browsers

Web

Web Server

Broker

Databases


Future gis internet enterprise
Future GIS Internet Enterprise

Applications

Browsers

Web

Broker

Web Server

Services

Databases


Distributed gis development
Distributed GIS Development

  • New Concept – g.net architecture

    • leveraging emerging web technologies

  • Web services

    • GIS technology for applications over the web

      • Mapping

      • Metadata

      • GIS Functionality

    • Spatial Data sharing and distribution

  • Extends ArcGIS Systemconcept

    • Desktop Applications

    • Back Office Servers

    • Distributed “Services” via the Internet


G net architecture building blocks

GIS Portal

GIS Portal

GIS Portal

G.net Architecture Building Blocks

  • Network architecture (Distributed)

  • Loosely Coupled

  • Internet Standards

  • Many GeoServices

  • Many Clients

  • Metadata Servers

  • Open / Interoperable

  • Full GIS capabilities

GIS Users

Connect and UseCheckout and Use

Search Catalog and Find

World Wide Web

  • Publish GIS Data & Services

  • Document in Catalog

Metadata Server

Author, Manage, Serve Catalogs

Author, Manage, Serve Geographic Information Collections


Esri direction software for g net
ESRI Direction“Software for G.Net”

ArcGIS

Used to build

  • Data

  • Maps

  • Models

  • Applications

  • Metadata

ArcIMS

  • Serve GIS

    • Data

    • Maps

    • Apps

GIS Web Services

Array of GIS Clients

Access and use GIS data and services

  • ArcReader

  • Map Objects for Java

  • ArcGIS Desktop & Extensions

  • ArcPad

ArcSDE

Used to manage

  • Data

  • Metadata

  • Transactions

ArcGIS

  • Author and Manage Metadata

  • Build Catalog

Metadata & Catalog Services

GIS Clients

ArcIMS

  • Manage Metadata

  • Provide Search Services

ArcSDE

Used to manage and distribute

  • Metadata


3 stages of gis
3-Stages of GIS

  • Data preparation and entry: the early stage in which data about the study phenomenon is collected and prepared to be entered into the system.

  • Data Analysis: the middle stage in which collected data is carefully reviewed and, for instance, attempts are made to discover patterns

  • Data Presentation: the final stage in which the results of earlier analysis are presented in an appropriate way


Importance applications
Importance & Applications

  • B: Business

  • I: Industries

  • G: Government

  • A: Academy

  • A: Aircraft

  • M: Military


Major area
Major Area

  • Natural Resource Management

    • Wildlife habitat,

    • Wild and scenic rivers,

    • Recreation resources,

    • Floodplains,

    • Wetlands,

    • Agricultural lands,

    • Forests.

  • Facilities Management

    • Locating underground pipes and cables,

    • Balancing loads in electrical networks,

    • Planning facility maintenance


Application contd
Application contd…

  • Land Management

    • Zoning and subdivision planning,

    • Land acquisition,

    • Environmental impact policy,

    • Water quality management,

    • Maintenance of ownership.

  • Info. Based Street Network

    • Address matching,

    • Location analysis or site selection,

    • Development of evacuation plans.


How gis assume greater significance
How GIS assume Greater Significance

  • Which is the best route between kalanki and ratnapark having minimal road intersection with good road and lesser traffic jam during peak hours?

  • Identify the roads served by Metro water tank in kalanki with a population between 1,000 and 1,500?

  • Which part of Gandaki zone has less literacy rate with unemployed youth between 20 and 30 years of age?

  • Where are the potential aquifers located away from agricultural land with good road connectivity within 50 km of Kathmandu for groundwater extraction?

  • Identify the apartment houses in new road not following building codes to withstand earthquake.


Spatial data and geoinformation
Spatial data and Geoinformation

  • spatial data; we mean data that contains positionalvalues. Often we can say in more precise phrase geospatial data as a further refinement, which then means spatial data that is geo-referenced

  • By information, we mean data that has been interpreted by a human being

  • Geo-information is a specific type of information that involves the interpretation of spatial data.


The real world and representation of gis
The real world and representation of GIS

  • we usually are trying to represent some part of the real world as it is, as it was, or perhaps as we think it will be

  • A computerized system can help to store such representations.

  • Static Model

    • Maps & Databases: at any point in time, they represent a single state of affairs. Usually developments or changes in the real world are not easily recognized in these models.

  • Dynamic Model

    • Simulation


Maps..

  • The best known models of the real world are maps

  • A map is a miniature representation of some part of the real world

  • GIS and the map is very closely related to each other

  • maps can deal with questions/answers relating to basic components of spatial or geographic data: location (geometry), characteristics, (thematic attributes) and time, and their combinations


Map types
Map Types

  • Topographic maps: A topographic map visualizes, limited by its scale, the Earth’s surface as accurately as possible. This may include infrastructure (egg, railroads and roads), land use (eg, vegetation and built-up areas), relief, hydrology, geographic names and reference grid

  • Thematic maps: A thematic map represents the distribution of the particular themes; we can distinguish socio-economic theme and the physical themes using these maps.


Spatial databases
Spatial Databases

  • A spatial database system is a database system

    • It offers spatial data types in its data model and query language

    • It supports spatial data types in its implementation, providing at least spatial indexing and efficient algorithms for spatial join.

a spatial database is a collection of spatially referenced data that acts as a model of reality

-a database is a model of reality in the sense that the database represents a selected set or approximation of phenomena

-these selected phenomena are deemed important enough to represent in digital form

-the digital representation might be for some past, present or future time period (or contain some combination of several time periods in an organized fashion)


Spatial databases1
Spatial Databases…

  • Spatial DB store representations of geographic phenomena in the real world to be used in a GIS.

  • They are special in the sense that they use other techniques that tables to store these representations because it is not easy to represent geographic phenomena using tables.

  • spatial phenomena exist in a two or three dimensional Euclidean space ( a model of space in which locations are represented as coordinates- (x, y) in 2D; (x, y, z) in 3D- and notions like distance and direction have been defined with the usual formulas).


Spatial db
Spatial DB..

  • A database may contain collection of:


ad