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Employee Empowerment in TQM

Employee Empowerment in TQM

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Employee Empowerment in TQM

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  1. Employee Empowerment in TQM Course Instructor: Engr. Mian Khurram Mateen

  2. Employee Involvement process • Motivating the work force • Team building • Training • Suggestion system • Reward an recognition • gain sharing • Performance appraisal

  3. Early Theories of Motivation • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory • Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs. • Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. • Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. • Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy. • Hierarchy of needs • Lower-order (external): physiological, safety • Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization Motivation by Prof Mian Khurram

  4. Exhibit 16–1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Growth, Achievement of Own potential goal, Status, Recognition, Attention Affection, Belongingness ,Acceptance Security and protection Food, Drink, Sex Motivation by Prof Mian Khurram

  5. Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d) • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. • Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. • Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. • Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. • The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction. Motivation by Prof Mian Khurram

  6. Exhibit 16–2 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Motivation by Prof Mian Khurram

  7. c. How to Motivate the Work Force • Know themselves (Managers, SWOT) • Know your employees • Establish a positive attitude • Share goals • Monitor progress • Communicate effectively • Celebrate success • Develop interesting work • Job rotation- switch job within a work unit • Job enlargement- combine task horizontally • Job enrichment- combine the tasks vertically

  8. Empowerment • It is an environment in which people have ability, the confidence, and the commitment to take responsibility and ownership to improve the process and initiate work, satisfy customer in order to achieve goals. • It is different from delegation and enrichment of work as in this there is ownership of work and the whole work is assigned to one person. • In order to create empowered environment three condition are necessary

  9. 3- Conditions for Empowerment • Every one must understand the need of change. People of high skill, education and experience want change and empowerment. Internal locus of control is also important • The system need to change to new model. Motivate individuals, freedom to act, • The organization must enable its employees. Means enhance their skills, knowledge, and information.

  10. Employee feel Empowered with • Stop work in progress – 83 % • Intervene on customer behalf- 81 % • Make exception to procedure – 61% • Rework product – 61 % • Replace goods – 37 % • Refund money – 27 %

  11. Team - Team is group of people working together to achieve a common goal • Types of teams • Process improvement team- • Team member represent each process, scope of activity is limited to work unit. 6-10 members of team • Cross functional team • 6-10 members from diff functional areas , engr., mkt, acct etc. it may be include customer and supplier • Natural work team • It composed of all the members of work unit • Self managed team • It is a extension of natural work teams but they are without supervisor but having a liaison officer from mgt.

  12. Characteristics of Successful Team • Sponsor – top management support • Team charter- mission, vision, scope • Team composition – not exceed to 10 • Training • Ground rule – rules and regulation- procedures • Clear objectives • Accountability • Resources • Trust • Effective problem solving • Open communication • Appropriate leadership • Balanced participation

  13. 4- Stages of Team development • Forming • It is the phase of transition from individual to member • considerable time spend on organizing and training • Become aware of boundaries • Member familiar with each other • Storming • Realize that how much work is left, starting to panic, blaming each others, resist to work in team, team leader know how to reduce these conflicts, compromise, list what other should do, • Performing • Settled all the things, better understand the project and solve the problems, understand the role and res • Adjourning • Evaluate the team members and Recognize the contributions,

  14. Common barriers to Team progress • In- efficient trainings • In-compatible reward and compensation • First line supervisor resistance • Lack of planning • Lack of top management support • Not set the scope, objectives smartly • To large team

  15. Common barriers to Team progress • In- efficient trainings • In-compatible reward and compensation • First line supervisor resistance • Lack of planning • Lack of top management support • Not set the scope, objectives smartly • To large team

  16. Training • 20 % retain of training what the heard • 90 % retain what they do • So training must be practical in nature • It will be given on need basis • There are 4- steps in training process • Make aware the people about the objective of training • Get acceptance from the participants that they are willing to attend it. And the training is valuable to them • Participants feel that they are active part of the training • Adapt the environment, attitude and behavior

  17. Suggestion Systems • Suggestion systems are designed to provide the individual with an opportunity to be involved by contributing to the organization • Individual ideas are untapped resources • Key to a effective system is management commitment • 5- rules for effective system • Be proactive by regularly asking your employees questions • Remove fear by focusing on process not on persons • Simplify the process so it is easy to participate • Respond quickly to the suggestion within a specified time • Reward the idea publicize it

  18. Recognition and Reward • Recognition is given by using verbal and written praise • Reward are is some thing tangible like, theater tickets, dinner, cash etc • Intrinsic rewards • Non- monetary form, celebration on achievements, appreciation • Extrinsic rewards • Profit sharing, gain sharing, employment security, compensation time, performance apprasial

  19. Benefit of Employee Involvement • Employees make better decision by using their expertise • Employee support the decision in implementation • Employees are better able to pinpoint the area of improvement • Employees are in better position to take corrective decisions • Employees involvement remove conflicts and improve communication • increase morale by having a sense of ownership • In better position to accept changes • Increase commitment