Chapter 12 Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity
Chapter Outline • The Meaning of Race and Ethnicity • When Worlds Collide: Patterns of Intergroup Relations • Culture and Intergroup Relations • Theories of Racial and Ethnic Inequality • A Piece of the Pie
Race • Biological race refers to distinct physical characteristics. • Race is also a social concept that varies from one society to another. • Racism is the belief that certain traits are marks of inferiority that justify discriminatory treatment of people with those traits.
Ethnic Groups • Ethnic groups are populations that have a sense of group identity based on a distinctive cultural pattern and shared ancestry, whether actual or assumed.
Ethnic Groups • Their members usually have migrated to a new nation or been conquered by an invading population. • The Native Americans are believed to have crossed the Bering Strait as migrant peoples between 14,000 and 20,000 years ago.
Minority Groups • A minority group is a set of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment, and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination. • Minority status carries with it exclusion from full participation in the life of the society.
Periods of Migration and Settlement in the U.S. • 1820–1885: “Old” Northwest European and Asian migration • 1885–1940: “Intermediate” migration from Southern and Eastern Europe and beginning of heavy immigration from Mexico • 1921–1959: Immigration by quota and refugee status • 1960 to the Present: Worldwide immigration
Patterns of Intergroup Relations • Genocide - state-sponsored mass killing to exterminate a population deemed racially or ethnically different and threatening to the dominant population. • Expulsion - the forcible removal of one population from territory claimed by another.
Patterns of Intergroup Relations • Slavery - ownership and control of one population by another. • Segregation - ecological and institutional separation of races or ethnic groups. • Assimilation - blending of a minority group into the majority population, leading to its eventual disappearance as a distinct people.
The Transatlantic Slave Trade • From the end of the16th century to the early decades of the 19th, approximately 11 to 12 million Africans were imported to the New World. • The thickness of the arrows shows the approximate volume of the slave trade to each region.
Minority Groups in the U.S. • Three ideological tendencies • Anglo-conformity • The melting-pot theory • Cultural pluralism
Assimilation • How many ethnic groups can you spot in this photo? • The effects of assimilation are powerful, and it is likely that the immigrants’ children will prefer to read signs in English when they are adults.
Culture and Intergroup Relations • Stereotypes - images of a racial or cultural group that are held whether or not they are true. • Prejudice - judging a person on the basis of real or imagined characteristics of a group of which that person is a member. • Discrimination - unfair treatment of people on the basis of their group membership.
Internal Colonialism Theory • Minority groups are essentially colonial peoples within the larger society. • The “colonial” people did not enter the society voluntarily. • The culture of the “colonial” people has been destroyed or transformed. • The “colonial” population is controlled by the dominant population. • Members of the “colonial” people are seen as inferior and are socially and psychologically oppressed.
Park’s Model of Urban Intergroup Relations Five Stages: • Invasion • Resistance • Competition • Accommodation and cooperation • Assimilation
Native Americans • As a result of their unsuccessful resistance to the European invasion, Native Americans were segregated on reservations, many of which lacked adequate resources to permit them to share in the “American dream.”
Racial Inequality in the United States • Blacks have been excluded from full participation in American social institutions longer than any other group. • Black families have higher rates of family breakup than white families. • Structural changes in the American economy have continually placed blacks at a disadvantage.
1. Which is true about "race?" • It is irrelevant in our society. • There are only two races in the world. • Race and stratification are today unrelated in the U.S. • Race relates to people sharing presumably similar physical characteristics.
Answer: d • The following statement is true about "race”: • Race relates to people sharing presumably similar physical characteristics.
2. A minority group is primarily defined in a sociological sense on the basis of its • small population size. • ethnic or racial background of members. • negative treatment by the dominant society. • low level of educational and occupational attainment.
Answer: c • A minority group is primarily defined in a sociological sense on the basis of its negative treatment by the dominant society.
3. The ________ theoretical perspective is best supported by the fact that many minorities remain segregated in ghettos and barrios, and are exploited politically and economically by capitalist interests. • conflict • functional • interactionist • social-psychological
Answer: a • The conflict theoretical perspective is best supported by the fact that many minorities remain segregated in ghettos and barrios, and are exploited politically and economically by capitalist interests.
4. Prejudice is to discrimination as ________ is to ________. • attitude / action • stereotype / prototype • assimilation / acculturation • necessity /the mother of invention
Answer: a • Prejudice is to discrimination as attitude is to action.