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Vegetative Structure - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Vegetative Structure. Embryogenesis Fertilization to Embryo Germination Embryo to Seedling Seedling Development Shoot Leaves Stems Root. Embryogenesis. Fertilization Zygote (2N) Cytokinesis Proembryo Globular Stage Heart Stage Torpedo Stage Mature Embryo. Mature Embryo.

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vegetative structure
Vegetative Structure
  • Embryogenesis
    • Fertilization to Embryo
  • Germination
    • Embryo to Seedling
  • Seedling Development
  • Shoot
  • Leaves
  • Stems
  • Root
embryogenesis
Embryogenesis
  • Fertilization
  • Zygote (2N)
  • Cytokinesis
  • Proembryo
  • Globular Stage
  • Heart Stage
  • Torpedo Stage
  • Mature Embryo
mature embryo
Mature Embryo
  • Dicot Embryo (Magnoliopsida)
  • 2 Cotyledons
  • Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM)
  • Plumules
  • Hypocotyl
  • Radicle (RAM)
mature embryo5
Monocot Embryo (Liliopsida)

1 Cotyledon (Scutellum)

Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM)

Coleoptile (Sheath)

Plumules (leaves)

Mesocotyl

Radicle (RAM)

Coleorhiza (Sheath)

Mature Embryo
dicot germination
Dicot Germination
  • Dehydration
  • Dormancy
  • Light
  • Temperature
    • Stratification
  • Scarification
    • Chemical
    • Mechanical
shoot tissues
SHOOT TISSUES
  • Meristems (Stem Cells)
  • Primary
    • Shoot and Root Apical Meristem (SAM & RAM)
        • Protoderm
        • Procambium
        • Ground Meristem
  • Secondary
        • Axillary Meristems
        • Vascular Cambium
        • Cork Cambium

Leaf primordium

SAM

procambium

protoderm

ground

meristem

Fig. 5-3, p. 73

shoot apex
SHOOT APEX
  • Meristems (Stem Cells)
  • Shoot Apical Meristem
  • Tunica
    • L1, L2
  • Corpus L3
    • Central Zone
    • Peripheral Zone
    • Pith Rib Meristem
leaf arrangment
Leaf Arrangment
  • Phyllotaxy
  • Opposite -90°
  • Alternate - 180°
  • Spiral – 137.5°
  • Whorled - 60°
leaf morphology
Leaf Morphology
  • Simple
  • Unlobed

Spatulate, Lanceolate,

Serrated, etc

  • Lobed
  • Palmate - Maple
  • Pinnate - Oak
  • Compound
  • Palmate - Poison Ivy
  • Pinnate - Rose
leaf tissues
Leaf Tissues
  • Leaves
  • Upper Epidermis
    • Cuticle
    • Leaf Hairs
  • Mesophyl
    • Palisade Parenchyma
    • Spongy Mesophyll
  • Vascular Bundle (vein)
    • Bundle Sheath
    • Xylem
    • Phloem
  • Lower Epidermis
    • Stomata
    • Cuticle
stem tissues
Stem Tissues
  • SAM
    • Epidermis (Tunica L1,L2)
    • Ground Meristem (Corpus L3)
  • Procambium
    • Peripheral Zone
  • Vascular Bundle
    • Phloem
    • Vascular Cambium
    • Xylem
    • Fibers
  • Cortex
  • Pith
dicot stem
Dicot Stem
  • Epidermis
  • Cortex
  • Vascular Bundle
    • Xylem
    • Vascular Cambium
    • Phloem
    • Fibers
  • Pith
monocot stem
Monocot Stem
  • Epidermis
  • Ground Tissue
  • Parallel Veination
  • Scattered Vascular

Bundles

    • Xylem
    • Phloem
    • Fibers
vascular tissue
Vascular Tissue
  • Xylem
    • Trachieds
    • Vessel Elements
  • Phloem
    • Sieve Cells
    • Sieve Tube Elements
    • Companion Cells
  • Fibers
    • Schlerenchyma
    • Collenchyma
woody stem tissues
Woody Stem Tissues
  • Epidermis
    • Bark
  • Cortex
    • Cork Cambium
  • Fused Vascular Bundles
    • Yearly Rings
    • Ray System
  • Pith
slide25

primary growth, some

secondary growth

secondary growth

year 1

2

3

Ray system

Axial

system

bark

vascular cambium

Fig. 5-12a, p. 78

modified stems
Modified Stems
  • Stolons (runners)
  • Horizontal
  • above ground
  • Strawberry, Clover, Bermuda Grass
  • Rhizomes
  • Horizontal
  • below ground
  • Ferns, Orchid, Banana, Bamboo, Bluegrass
  • Corm
  • Swollen Stem Base
  • below ground
  • Gladiolus, Crocus
  • Tuber
  • Enlarged Underground Stem (Rhizome) Tip
  • White Potato
  • Bulb
  • Small Stem
  • Fleshy Leaves
  • Onion, Lily, Turnip
root tissues
Zone of Cell Division

Root Apical Meristem (RAM)

Quiescent Center

Root Cap

Zone of Elongation

Epidermis

Cortex

Procambium

Root Tissues
root tissues28
Root Tissues
  • Zone of Maturation
    • Epidermis
      • Root Hairs
    • Cortex
    • Vascular Stele
      • Endodermis
      • Pericycle
      • Phloem
      • Xylem
secondary roots
Secondary Roots
  • Pericycle
    • Secondary Meristem
root types
Root Types
  • a. Tap
  • Large Primary Root
  • Small Number of Secondary Roots
  • Beans
  • b. Storage
  • Very Large Primary Root
  • Very Small Secondary Roots
  • Biennials
  • Carrot
  • Perennials
  • Sweet Potato
  • c. Fibrous
  • Small Primary Root
  • Large number of Secondary Roots