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Science Fair Project. Soil Porosity . Table of Contents. Cover Page Page 1 Research Question Page 2 Written Research Page 3 Hypothesis/Purpose Page 4 Materials List Page 5 Procedure Page 6 Data Collection Page 7 Lingering Questions Page 8 Conclusions Page 9

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science fair project

Science Fair Project

Soil Porosity

table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Cover Page Page 1
  • Research Question Page 2
  • Written Research Page 3
  • Hypothesis/Purpose Page 4
  • Materials List Page 5
  • Procedure Page 6
  • Data Collection Page 7
  • Lingering Questions Page 8
  • Conclusions Page 9
  • Bibliography Page 10
cover page
Cover Page

Soil Porosity

Classroom Demonstration

formulating a research question
Formulating a Research Question

Monday’s Notes

ISN page 2

START with the END in MIND

Independent Variables are changes that occur in an experiment that are directly caused by the experimenter (you.)

Dependent Variables are changes that occur due to independent variables.

A Controlled Variable is anything else that could influence the dependent variables.

how would you plan the experiment variables
How would you plan the experiment? (Variables)
  • What is the most efficient angle for windmill blades?
  • Ability of water surface tension to hold weight
  • How does the shape and mass of an object affect its velocity when sinking through water?
  • Can quarters and feathers fall at the same speed?
  • Do different types of firewood produce different amounts of heat?
  • What affects the rate of evaporation of water.

Monday’s Assignment

ISN page 1

research question
Research Question
  • What will have the greatest amount of porosity, soil or sand?
conducting the research
Conducting the Research
  • DMOZ – Open Directory Project
  • http://www.dmoz.org/
  • The Open Directory Project is the largest, most comprehensive directory of the Web. It is constructed and maintained by a vast, global community of volunteer editors.”
  • The DMOZ human-edited review process assures that websites in the directory are actually about what they say they are about. Their selective process keeps the directory more concise and higher quality than most search engines. Further, the DMOZ directory listings are actually used by hundreds of commercial search engines including AltaVista, A9, AOL, Clusty, Gigablast, Google, Lycos, MSN, Teoma and Yahoo.
  • For science projects and all science related material you can browse through http://www.dmoz.org/Science/
  • For students and much support for school related subjects browse through http://www.dmoz.org/Kids_and_Teens/School_Time/

Tuesday’s Notes

ISN page 4

Colored Words Only

conducting the research8
Conducting the Research
  • The Internet Public Library (IPL)
  • http://www.ipl.org/
  • The IPL, is a public service organization and learning/teaching environment at the University of Michigan School of Information. Originally an experiment that started in 1995, the IPL tries to discover and promote the most effective roles and contributions of librarians to the Internet and vice versa. Like a library, the information is high quality and well organized into a category format.
  • For students and supporting information for school subjects browse through http://www.ipl.org/div/kidspace/

Tuesday’s Notes

ISN page 4

Colored Words Only

conducting the research9
Conducting the Research
  • SCIRUS - A Scientific Information Only Search Engine
  • http://www.scirus.com/
  • In their own words ...
  • Scirus is the most comprehensive science-specific search engine on the Internet. Driven by the latest search engine technology, Scirus searches over 200 million science-specific Web pages, enabling you to quickly:
    • Pinpoint scientific, scholarly, technical and medical data on the Web.
    • Find the latest reports, peer-reviewed articles, patents, pre prints and journals that other search engines miss.
    • Offer unique functionalities designed for scientists and researchers.
  • Scirus has proved so successful at locating science-specific results on the Web that the Search Engine Watch Awards voted Scirus 'Best Specialty Search Engine' in 2001 and 2002 and 'Best Directory or Search Engine Website' WebAward from Web Marketing Association in 2004.

Tuesday’s Notes

ISN page 4

Colored Words Only

paraphrasing tips
Paraphrasing Tips
  • What Is a Paraphrase?
  • A paraphrase is a rewording of another writer's text, but is substantially different in wording and sentence structure.
  • Why Paraphrase?
  • to make sure that you fully understand what the text says
  • to discuss someone's argument or text directly
  • to use as expert evidence for a point you are making
  • How to Paraphrase a Text
  • Use alternative wording
  • If you use the author's words to name important ideas, enclose his or her phrases in quotation marks.
  • Present the ideas of the original using your own sentence structure and word choice.
  • Cite your source

Tuesday’s Notes

ISN page 4

Colored Words Only

how would you paraphrase
How would you paraphrase?
  • The flow of water within rocks depends upon two properties: the rock's porosity and permeability. Porosity is that part of a rock's volume, which is made up of empty space or with vessels that allow liquids to flow through. Crystalline rocks have low porosity which is why water finds it difficult to go through. However, sedimentary rocks have high porosity, hence water cuts through easily.
  • http://www.pitara.com/discover/5wh/online.asp?story=29

Tuesday’s Assignment

ISN page 3

Paraphrase the Paragraph

how would you paraphrase12
How would you paraphrase?
  • Some people have made it their life's work to study such rivers. Speleologists - or scientists who study and explore caves - have tried to follow the course of some underground rivers but many passages are too narrow to get through. What they do then is to mix a dye in the water so that when it surfaces they can accurately identify where the underground river started, and where it finally surfaced.
  • http://www.pitara.com/discover/5wh/online.asp?story=29

Tuesday’s Assignment

ISN page 3

Paraphrase the Paragraph

how would you paraphrase13
How would you paraphrase?
  • POROSITY & PERMEABILITY
  • Description:
  • Porosity and permeability are the key factors in determining how water moves through or is held by the earth's surface materials. Using models to determine grain size and real soil samples for testing, discover one of the mysteries of how the water cycle serves us.
  • http://www.cwec.ca/Act_PorosityPermeability

Tuesday’s Assignment

ISN page 3

Paraphrase the Paragraph

written research
Written Research
  • Soils are made of particles of different types and sizes. The space between particles is called pore space. Pore space determines the amount of water that a given volume of soil can hold. Porosity is the percentage of the total volume of soil that consists of pore space. This is an important measurement in areas where drinking water is provided by groundwater reserves.
hypothesis tips
Hypothesis Tips

Wednesday’s Notes

ISN page 6

  • Your hypothesis is a prediction of the outcome
  • Your prediction is based on your understanding of the science
  • First find out what are you measuring or manipulating
  • The term variable describes what you are measuring
  • An independent variable is the variable you are controlling
  • A dependent variable is what you measure in the experiment
  • The dependent variable changes because of the independent variable
write hypothesis for the following
Write Hypothesis for the following
  • Does music affect on animal behavior?
  • Does the color of food or drinks affect whether or not we like them?
  • Where are the most germs in your school?
  • Does music have an affect on plant growth?
  • Which kind of food do dogs prefer best?
  • Which paper towel brand is the strongest?
  • What is the best way to keep an ice cube from melting?
  • Can the food we eat affect our heart rate?
  • How effective are child-proof containers and locks.
  • Can background noise levels affect how well we concentrate?
  • What is the best way to keep cut flowers fresh the longest?
  • Does the color of light used on plants affect how well they grow?
  • Does the color of a room affect human behavior?

Wednesday’s Assignment

ISN page 5

hypothesis
Hypothesis
  • I believe that sand will have the greatest amount of porosity because sand has much tinier particles that will provide more space in between.

Purpose

To measure the amount of water stored in the pore space of a soil sample.

making a material list
Making a Material List
  • Have you listed all necessary materials?
  • Have you described the materials in sufficient detail?
  • Must be done in advance
  • Must represent good planning
  • All supplies and materials should be listed
  • Must show thorough research

Thursday’s Notes

ISN page 8

Colored Words Only

make a materials list for 7 of the following
Make a Materials List for 7 of the Following:
  • Does music affect on animal behavior?
  • Does the color of food or drinks affect whether or not we like them?
  • Where are the most germs in your school?
  • Does music have an affect on plant growth?
  • Which kind of food do dogs prefer best?
  • Which paper towel brand is the strongest?
  • What is the best way to keep an ice cube from melting?
  • Can the food we eat affect our heart rate?
  • How effective are child-proof containers and locks.
  • Can background noise levels affect how well we concentrate?
  • What is the best way to keep cut flowers fresh the longest?
  • Does the color of light used on plants affect how well they grow?
  • Does the color of a room affect human behavior?

Thursday’s Assignment

ISN page 7

Write a materials list for 7 of the questions above

materials list
Materials List
  • dry soil sample or sand
  • two 500 ml beakers
  • water
procedure tips
Procedure Tips
  • Step by step instructions on how to do the experiment
  • Each procedure is numbered
  • Skip a line between each procedure
  • Use as many steps as possible
  • Be very specific
  • Each procedure should be only 1-2 sentences

Friday’s Notes

ISN page 10

Colored Text

write procedures for 4 of the following
Write Procedures for 4 of the following
  • Does music affect on animal behavior?
  • Does the color of food or drinks affect whether or not we like them?
  • Where are the most germs in your school?
  • Does music have an affect on plant growth?
  • Which kind of food do dogs prefer best?
  • Which paper towel brand is the strongest?
  • What is the best way to keep an ice cube from melting?
  • Can the food we eat affect our heart rate?
  • How effective are child-proof containers and locks.
  • Can background noise levels affect how well we concentrate?
  • What is the best way to keep cut flowers fresh the longest?
  • Does the color of light used on plants affect how well they grow?
  • Does the color of a room affect human behavior?

Friday’s Assignment

ISN page 9

Write a detailed procedures list for 4 of the above questions

procedures
Procedures
  • Fill one beaker, up to the 500 ml mark, with dry soil or sand. Place it on a table or flat workspace.
  • Fill the other beaker, up to the 500 ml mark, with water.
  • Slowly pour the water from the second beaker into the soil sample. Stop pouring when the water level reaches the top of the soil. The soil has reached saturation and cannot hold any more water.
  • How much water is left in the second beaker?
  • How much water is now held in the pore spaces of the soil sample?
  • Use your answer from question 5 to compute the porosity (the percentage of pore space) of the soil sample.
complete the porosity experiment
Complete the Porosity Experiment
  • Gather data and observations and present them in a chart or graph

Monday’s Notes (None)

ISN page 12

Complete the Experiment

slide25
Data
  • Can consist of the following:
    • Logs or journals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Pictures
    • Observations

Monday’s Assignment

ISN page 11

Gather data and put it in a chart, graph, or table

questions and answers
Questions and Answers
  • There should be at least 3 questions.
  • Questions must deal with the experiment itself.
  • Answers should come from your observations.
  • Answers should be in complete sentences and should include the question.
  • Skip a line between questions.
  • Write on front page only.

Tuesday’s Assignment

ISN page 14

Colored Text

write down 3 related questions for 5 of the following
Write down 3 related questions for 5 of the following:
  • Does music affect on animal behavior?
  • Does the color of food or drinks affect whether or not we like them?
  • Where are the most germs in your school?
  • Does music have an affect on plant growth?
  • Which kind of food do dogs prefer best?
  • Which paper towel brand is the strongest?
  • What is the best way to keep an ice cube from melting?
  • Can the food we eat affect our heart rate?
  • How effective are child-proof containers and locks.
  • Can background noise levels affect how well we concentrate?
  • What is the best way to keep cut flowers fresh the longest?
  • Does the color of light used on plants affect how well they grow?
  • Does the color of a room affect human behavior?

Tuesday’s Assignment

ISN page 13

question and answers
Question and Answers
  • What soil should be used when building houses?
  • What soil should be used when planting new plants?
  • Why do different soils have different porosity and how could this knowledge be used in different professions?
conclusion tips
Conclusion Tips
  • Your conclusions summarize how your results support or contradict your hypothesis
  • Summarize your science fair project results in a few
  • Include key facts from your background research to help explain your results as needed
  • State the relationship between the independent and dependent variable.
  • Summarize your experimental procedure, comment on its success and effectiveness.
  • Suggest changes and possibilities for further study.

Wednesday Notes

ISN page 16

Colored Text

write a conclusions for the porosity experiment
Write a conclusions for the porosity experiment:
  • Complete sentences
  • Incorporate data
  • List real world applications

Wednesday’s Assignment

ISN page 15

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Two to three paragraphs
  • Conclusion about the experiment only
  • What happened?
  • What do you think you did right?
  • What might you change?
  • Revisit your hypothesis.
  • Check your data and the answers to your questions.
review online application
Review Online Application

Thursday’s Notes

ISN page 18

TBA

bibliography
Bibliography
  • http://all-science-fair-projects.com/science_fair_projects/25/302/482e064ec45c82c25b7cd893a69246df.html

Thursday’s Assignment

ISN page 17

Complete Bibliography using online application