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Essential Question

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  1. Essential Question • What were the important events of the Civil Rights Movement?

  2. The Civil Rights Movement Begins

  3. “Separate But Equal” • 1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson ruled that laws segregating African Americans and whites were legal as long as equal facilities were provided for both

  4. Jim Crow Laws • Evident throughout the South • Buses, trains, schools, restaurant, amusement parks, swimming pools • The decision of each community

  5. NAACP • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (1909) • Began the Civil Rights Movement

  6. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) • Part of the Civil Rights Movement • Used sit-ins to protest segregation (e.g. restaurants)

  7. Brown v. Board of Education • Thurgood Marshall – African American attorney who focused his attention on public schools • Linda Brown denied access to her neighborhood school in Topeka, Kansas

  8. Brown v. Board of Education • 1954 • Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional

  9. Montgomery Bus Boycott • Started by Rosa Parks • Challenge to segregation on public transportation

  10. Martin Luther King Jr. “Now let us say that we are not advocating violence . . . The only weapon we have in our hands this evening is the weapon of protest. If we are incarcerated behind the iron curtains of a communist nation – we couldn’t do this. If we were trapped in the dungeon of a totalitarian regime – we couldn’t do this. But the great glory of American democracy is the right to protest for right!”

  11. Martin Luther King Jr. • Believed the only moral way to end segregation and racism was through nonviolent passive resistance • Public opinion would bring change

  12. Montgomery Bus Boycott • Lasted over one year • Dec. 1956 – Supreme Court declared Alabama’s laws requiring segregation on buses to be unconstitutional

  13. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • Group of African American ministers led by King • Challenged segregation throughout the South, encouraged voting

  14. Little Rock, Arkansas • Sept. 1957 – nine African Americans to attend Central High School • Governor ordered National Guard to prevent this

  15. Little Rock, Arkansas • Pres. Eisenhower was forced to send U.S. Army troops to guard the school, escort African American students

  16. Challenging Segregation

  17. The Sit-In Movement Began at a Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, NC Became a mass movement for civil rights

  18. Freedom Riders Teams of African Americans and whites rode through the South together on buses Faced violence in Alabama

  19. James Meredith Attempted to enroll at the University of Mississippi Kennedy sent federal troops to escort him to classes

  20. Birmingham MLK understood that the federal government intervened only when violence and disorder occurred in southern cities

  21. Birmingham Spring 1963 – MLK led demonstrations in this city MLK was arrested, wrote letters while in jail in defense of nonviolent protest

  22. Birmingham, AL Public Safety Commissioner used force against protestors – clubs, police dogs, firehoses All watched on television by Americans Kennedy forced to act

  23. John F. Kennedy “One hundred years of delay have passed since President Lincoln freed the slaves, yet their heirs, their grandsons, are not fully free . . . And this nation, for all its hopes and for all its boasts, will not be fully free until all its citizens are free . . . Now the time has come for this nation to fulfill its promise.”

  24. March on Washington Aug. 1963 – led by MLK Used to lobby Congress and gain public support 200,000 demonstrators flocked to Washington D.C.

  25. Civil Rights Act of 1964 Most comprehensive civil rights law Gave the federal government power to prevent racial discrimination in all public places, jobs, schools

  26. 24th Amendment Eliminated poll taxes (fees paid in order to vote)

  27. Selma Demonstration Led by MLK to protest voting restrictions – became a protest march Peaceful protestors attacked by state troopers and deputized citizens

  28. Selma Demonstration “Bloody Sunday” – televised violence Nation was stunned, president Johnson furious

  29. Voting Rights Act of 1965 No literacy tests Federal examiners allowed to register qualified voters (not local officials)