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Nomenclature Video AP1.3. Scientific N aming System Part I. What is the difference between an element and a compound?. Definitions. Elements cannot be broken down by physical or chemical changes. Compounds are composed of 2 or more elements that can be broken down by chemical change.

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nomenclature video ap1 3

Nomenclature Video AP1.3

Scientific Naming System

Part I

definitions
Definitions
  • Elements cannot be broken down by physical or chemical changes.
  • Compounds are composed of 2 or more elements that can be broken down by chemical change.
  • What type of matter can be broken down by physical changes?
slide4
Ions
  • Ionsare elements with a charge. The reference table lists these charges for each element.
  • If the element is positive, it is called a cation.
  • Cations are named the same as the element.

(Example: Ca=Calcium and Ca+2=Calcium ion)

  • If the element in negative, it is called an anion.
  • Anions are named ending with “-ide”

(Example: N=Nitrogen and N-3 = Nitride ion)

you try
You try:
  • Mg+2
  • K+
  • O-2
  • F-
  • Li+
  • I-
binary compounds
Binary Compounds

Binary Compounds consist of only two of elements. To name: write the complete name of the first element. The second element should then be named, ending in “-ide.”

  • NaCl sodium chloride
  • KI potassium iodide
  • MgCl2 magnesium chloride
  • Ca3N2 calcium nitride
slide7

Remember: When naming, always name the positive, cation first and then the negative, anion last.

you try1
You try…
  • Li3P
  • Al2S3
  • SrBr2
  • Rb2O
  • BaSe
  • CsI
problem
Problem:
  • FeCl2 and FeCl3 are different compounds but seem to have the same name. How can we name them different?
  • FeCl2 is iron (II) chloride FeCl3 is iron (III) chloride.
  • What do the roman numerals represent?
transition metals and nonmetals
Transition Metals and nonmetals
  • Transition Metals are in the middle group of the periodic table.
  • Nonmetals are on the right side of the staircase.
  • They have multiple charges or oxidation numbers and so you must show which charge you are using with roman numerals:

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

general rule
General Rule
  • First Column: +1
  • Second Column: +2
  • Third Column: +3
  • Fourth Column: +4
  • Fifth Column: -3
  • Sixth Column: -2
  • Seventh Column: -1
  • Eighth Column: 0
slide12

Careful:

This rule doesn’t ALWAYS work for cations. Find the anion’s charge and equalize that with the cation’s charge.

try these
Try these…

FeCl2

CuF

ZnO

N2O3

SO3

PCl3

CH4

criss cross rule
Criss-cross Rule

To write a formula, write the two ions separately showing their charges. Charges are on the periodic table. Then, swap the two numbers and drop the sign:

Calcium nitride:Ca2+ N-3

Ca3N2

Lithium oxide : Li+ O-2

Li2O

Notice, we don’t write ones!

try these1
Try these…
  • Potassium iodide
  • Magnesium chloride
  • Aluminum sulfide
  • Hydrogen oxide
  • Barium selenide
  • Cesium phosphide
  • Strontium phosphide
  • Copper (II) flouride
  • Iron (III) telluride
other compounds
Other Compounds
  • When compounds have more than 2 elements, it contains a polyatomic ion.
  • AgNO3 silver nitrate
  • CaCO3 calcium carbonate
  • LiClO2 lithium chlorite
  • NaOH sodium hydroxide
  • (NH4)3PO4 ammonium phosphate
you try2
You try…
  • K2SO4
  • CsNO2
  • Ba(SCN)2
  • SrClO3
  • Al(HCO3)3
  • RbCN
try these2
Try These…

Name: Write the formula:

FeSCN Nickel (III) Nitride

CoCl3 Manganese (II) sulfite

NiBr2 Zinc sulfate

CuO Titanium (II) carbonate

MnI4 Gold (III) oxide

Ag2S Iron (III) Chloride

tricks for memorization
Tricks for memorization:
  • Memorize the “-ates”
  • Any similar polyatomic with one more oxygen is a “per—ate”.
  • Any similar polyatomic with one less oxygen is a “ite”.
  • Any similar polyatomic with two less oxygens is a “hypo—ite”.
another note
Another note…
  • Occasionally you may see transition metals named using the old English system. You will not be tested on this, but it may be useful to keep in mind when reading textbooks/worksheets/etc.
  • Rule: The ion with the smaller charge will end in “ous” and the ion with the larger charge will end in “ic”. All other naming rules still apply.
  • Example: Ferrous Fe+2

Ferric Fe+3

  • More names appear in your textbook.
nomenclature video ap1 8

Nomenclature Video AP1.8

Scientific Naming System

Part II

covalent compounds
Covalent Compounds
  • Compounds with only nonmetals (elements on the right side of the staircase).

1 mono-

2 di-

3 tri-

4 tetra-

5 penta-

6 hexa-

7 hepta-

8 oct-

9 non-

name or write the formula
Name or write the formula:

NO

H2O

PCl5

Cl2O7

Carbon tetrachloride

Phosphorous tribromide

Silicon dioxide

acids
Acids

Acids generally will start with a hydrogen and have to be in the aqueous form.

Hydrogen ____ ide hydro _____ ic acid

Hydrogen ____ ate  ______ ic acid

Hydrogen per__ ate  per______ic acid

Hydrogen ____ ite ______ ous acid

Hydrogen hypo_ ite hypo_____ous acid

name the acids
Name the acids:
  • HClO4
  • HClO3
  • HClO2
  • HClO
  • HCl
  • HBr
  • HF
  • HI
  • H2SO4
  • H2SO3
  • HNO3
  • HNO2
  • H3PO4