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National series lecture 4 national measures jordan

National SeriesLecture 4 National MeasuresJordan

Bradford Disarmament Research CentreDivision of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK

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  • Public health

    • WHO Biosafety/Biosecurity Guidelines (2004)

    • International Health Regulations (2005)

    • Laboratory Biorisk Management Standard (2008)

  • Arms control

    • BTWC (1972)

    • Chemical Weapons Convention (1993)

  • Engagement of life scientists

    • Oversight

    • Codes of conduct

    • Education

1 public health
1. Public health

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Laboratory measures
Laboratory measures


  • The WHO Laboratory Biosafety Manual is a helpful reference for states that accept the challenge to develop and establish national codes of practice for securing their microbiological assets, yet ensuring their availability for clinical, research and epidemiological purposes.

  • Codes of practice = a codified list [or guideline or standard of required] of essential safety practices and procedures.

    (WHO 2004)

Laboratory measures1
Laboratory measures

Biosafety level (BSL) 1-2

  • Access

    • Authorizing access, hazard signs, and gates/doors closed

  • Personal protection

    • Uniforms (coveralls, glasses, and footwear), washing hands

  • Procedures

    • No pipetting by mouth, limited and written procedures for clean-up, and procedures minimizing the formation of aerosols and droplets

  • Laboratory working areas

    • keeping neat, clean and free of potentially dangerous material at the end of the working day

  • Biosafety management

    • This is the responsibility of the laboratory director

    • Training, evaluation, surveillance and treatment should be provided when necessary

Laboratory measures2
Laboratory measures

Biosafety level (BSL) 3

BSL 1-2 applies except where modified as follows:

  • Biohazard symbol must include the name of the laboratory supervisor

  • Laboratory protective clothing upgrade

  • Open manipulations of all potentially infectious material contained

  • Respiratory protective equipment may be necessary

    Biosafety level (BSL) 4

    BSL 3 applies except where modified as follows:

  • The two-person rule should apply, whereby no individual ever works alone

  • A complete change of clothing and shoes is required prior to entering the laboratory

  • Personnel must be trained in emergency extraction procedures

  • A method of communication for routine and emergency contacts

Laboratory measures3
Laboratory measures

The Biosafety and Biosecurity International Conference Process (BBIC) took another important step forward with the successful conduct of the BBIC-2011 regional conference in Amman, Jordan in collaboration with the Royal Scientific Society and El Hassan Science City from 13 to 15 September. There were nearly 130 participants from 23 countries.

  • Third BBIC in Amman, Jordan in 2011

  • Create Four Working Groups, agreed upon developing:

    • Human Capital

    • Physical Infrastructure

    • Preparedness and Prevention

    • Policy Making and Legal

    • Asessfeasibility of Regional Training Centres

    • Establish a MENA region Biosafety and Biosecurity

    • Association

      (ICLS 2011)

Exercise 1
Exercise 1

Laboratory safety/security: whose responsibility?

  • Who should be responsible for laboratory safety and security measures (scientists, PI, managers of the institutions or government)?. How should such processes be implemented?

  • Read the document (the case of Thomas Bulter - Texas Tech University ) and report to the class (10 min).

Laboratory measures4
Laboratory measures

Is physical protection enough for laboratory safety and security?

Laboratory Biorisk Management Standard (CWA-15793:2008)

Flexible risk assessment approach = not based on an assumed static level of risk agents but situational

  • Timing and scope – when to review practices? (e.g.)

    • Commencement of new work or changes to the programme of work including the introduction of new biological agents

    • New construction / modifications to laboratories, plant and equipment or its operation;

    • When considering emergency response and contingency planning requirements;

Laboratory measures5
Laboratory measures

Laboratory Biorisk Management Standard (CWA-15793:2008)

Highlighting the role of the top manager

“Top management shall take ultimate responsibility for the organization’s biorisk management system.”

Top management includes Officers (Director General, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer, etc.) and Directors of the organization.

Laboratory measures

Laboratory Biorisk Management Standard (CWA-15793:2008)

  • Planning for hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control

  • Identifying roles, responsibilities and authorities of actors

  • Personnel training, awareness and competence

  • Operational control (physical and technical procedures)

  • Emergency response and contingency plans

    = Wider than the physical protection of agents and toxins

    Each element is detailed and instructions provided in the document

Public health measures
Public health measures

  • The stated purpose of the International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 are:

    "to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade.”

    (WHO 2012a)

    “3 top priorities of the IHR” (WHO 2012) - States should:

  • Establish a functioning National IHR Focal Point

  • Ensure adherence to reporting requirements and verification of public health events.

  • Assess and strengthen national capacities

Public health measures ihr
Public health measures (IHR)

8 Core capacities required of States:

  • National legislation, policy and financing,

  • Coordination and NFP communications,

  • Surveillance,

  • Response,

  • Preparedness,

  • Risk communication,

  • Human resource, and

  • Laboratory.

See Checklist and Indicators for Monitoring Progress in the Development of IHR Core Capacities in States Parties (WHO/HSE/IHR/2010.1.Rev.1)

Public health measures ihr1
Public health measures (IHR)


  • The IHRs do not have an enforcement mechanism (no teeth!) against non-compliance


  • Non-compliance risks run by States:

    • tarnished international image

    • increased morbidity/mortality of affected populations,

    • unilateral travel and trade restrictions

    • economic and social disruption and

    • public outrage

      (WHO 2012b)

Public health measures ihr2
Public health measures (IHR)


  • A mission for the assessment of IHR core capacities took place in Jordan from 22 to 26 January 2012. The main objectives of the meeting were to:

    • Identify the core capacities required to support IHR implementation at the local/community level and/or primary public health response, and at the intermediate and national levels;

    • Provide guidance on the use of assessment tools;

    • Identify ways to integrate the IHR requirements into existing public health laws in Jordan;

    • Agree on IHR core capacity requirements for points of entry in the country.

      (WHO 2012c)

National implementation of an international legal agreement
National implementation of an international legal agreement

Biological and Toxin Weapons ConventionArticle IV“Each State Party to this Convention shall, in accordance with its constitutional processes, take any necessary measures to prohibit and prevent the development, production, stockpiling, acquisition, or retention of the agents, toxins, weapons, equipment and means of delivery specified in article I of the Convention.”

Chemical Weapons Convention

Article VII

  • “Each State Party shall, in accordance with its constitutional processes, adopt the necessary measures to implement its obligations under this Convention.” 

National implementation of an international legal agreement

Case of the BTWC – options for States

  • Existing national regulations are enough to achieve the scope of the BTWC and no further legislation is necessary

  • Certain amendments of existing laws and regulations are necessary

  • An act is newly enacted specifically for the BTWC, and

  • Broader legislation is enacted not only for the BTWC but generally for anti-terrorism acts

    (ROK 2003)

“in accordance with its constitutional process”

= No one size fits all

National implementation of an international legal agreement


  • BTWC

    • National legislation of the BTWC in Jordan has been implemented though the development of penal code, export control and environmental laws.

      (VERTIC 2012)

  • Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

    • No legislation is registered with the CWC website.


BTWC: Jordan’s Submission of Confidence Building Measures (CBMs)

Jordan has submitted its CBM return occasionally, but not in a consistent manner.

Table was created based on the database of the UNOG

Evolution of the btwc strengthening national measures
Evolution of the BTWC: strengthening national measures

From a traditional disarmament regime to a security architecture
From a traditional disarmament regime to a security architecture

Evolution of the BTWC: strengthening national measures

Extending threat spectrum >

Manmade, safety and natural threats/risks = All hazard approach

Institutional evolution > terrorism, crime and public health sectors

(e.g. UNSCR1540, Interpol, WHO, OIE, FAO, IFBA)

Exercise2 architecture

Are legal obligations sufficient to ensure an effective security culture?

  • Discuss what kind of other national measures (in parallel to laboratory security/safety at institutions and legal obligations) should or could be developed in order to prevent the misuse of the life sciences in society

  • What kind of other social actors can play a biosecurity role?

    (10 min)

  • Report to the class

3 engagement of life scientists
3. Engagement of architecture life scientists

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Oversight of research
Oversight of Research architecture

A possible policy process for oversight


USA - TheNational Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB)

Israel - Steering Committee on Issues in Biotechnological Research in the Age of Terrorism

Codes of conduct
Codes of Conduct architecture

InterAcademy Panel (IAP) Statement on Biosecurity (2005)

  • Endorsed by over 60 national science academies

  • Defines five fundamental policies:

    • Awareness;

    • Safety and security;

    • Education and information;

    • Accountability;

    • Oversight.

      National example

  • Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (2005)

    • A Code of Conduct for Biosecurity

  • Indonesian Academy of Sciences (forthcoming) (Sudoyo 2011)

Education a national action plan
Education: a national action plan architecture

A national biosecurity dual-use action plan model

  • Identify what is currently taught (a survey)

  • Develop a network of interested lecturers

  • Develop appropriate content for courses

  • Implement pilot courses

  • Monitor and evaluate pilot courses

  • Identify and elucidate best practice

  • Institute clear, active links between industrial partners/associates, defence agencies and academic institutions teaching biosecurity

  • Develop or participate in an international network to share best practice

  • Make dual-use/biosecurity education mandatory

  • Monitor consequential growth of sensible codes and oversight systems

  • Report on progress to BTWC and relevant scientific meetings

Education a national action plan1
Education: a national action plan architecture

1. Developing an educational resource for codes of conduct;

2. Developing capacity building programmes

3. Changing evaluation criteria of funding bodies or review criteria of scientific journals

4. Changing evaluation criteria on higher education institutions

5. Establishing a national advisory board

6. Legislating a biosecurityact



  • 5








National measures areas of possible improvement
National measures: architecture Areas of possible improvement


  • Laboratory safety measures

    • Efforts have been made and need to continue alongside development of a biosecurity framework

  • National legislation of the BTWC

    • Efforts have been made, the legislative information to the OPCW can be considered

  • Education and Codes of Conduct

    • Implementation of the survey and the development of a national code of conduct for biosecurity will strengthen efforts

References architecture

  • The references cited in this presentation may be found in the Notes section of this slide.