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Imaging session Haematology MBChB V. Session 1 MJ Coetzee. Normal blood picture. Normal blood smear. Normal white cells. Normal red cells & platelets. Eosinophil. Basophil. Normal band cell. Normal bone marrow.

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Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Imaging sessionHaematologyMBChB V

Session 1MJ Coetzee



Normal blood smear
Normal blood smear

Normal white cells

Normal red cells& platelets


Eosinophil
Eosinophil

Basophil




Imaging session haematology mbchb v


Normal bone marrow cells
Normal bone marrow cells cells in the circulation


Normal bone marrow smear
Normal bone marrow smear cells in the circulation

Normal bone marrow particle (1/3 adipose cells)


Hypercellular bone marrow
Hypercellular bone marrow cells in the circulation

Biopsy (histological picture)

Particle on smear


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Hypocellular bone marrow cells in the circulation

Adipose cells have replaced normal bone marrow

Bone

Aspirate particle


Full blood count

Full blood count cells in the circulation


Full blood count 1
Full blood count-1 cells in the circulation

  • The FBC is a group of tests that provides us with information about:

    • Red cells and their properties

    • Total white cell count and concentrations of types of white cells (differential count)

    • Concentrations of platelets

  • A blood smear is made and the morphology of the blood cells are reported

  • Often the ESR is done simultaneously


Full blood count 2
Full blood count -2 cells in the circulation

  • Blood for a FBC is drawn into a purple tube,thatcontainsthe anticoagulant EDTA

  • The tube should reach the lab. within 2 hours - otherwise artifacts can occur

  • Manual blood counts entails involves pipetting by mouth and involves a risk of infection

  • Automated cell counters count red cells, white cells & platelets, en does Hb and red cell indices


Haemoglobin 1
Haemoglobin-1 cells in the circulation

  • Normal Hb varies with age, sex & height above sea level

  • In Bloemfontein (1300 m) the normal Hb for adults is:

    • Men: 14,5-18,5 g/dl

    • Women: 12,5-16,5 g/dl


Haemoglobin 2
Haemoglobin-2 cells in the circulation

  • Hb can also be measured in g/l and mmol/l

  • World Health Organisation

    • At sea level

    • Definitions of anaemia by experts

  • Children < 10 j < 9 g/dl

  • Adult men < 13 g/dl

  • Adult women < 12 g/dl

  • Pregnant women < 11 g/dl


Red cell indices 1
Red cell indices-1 cells in the circulation

  • The Hb shows the presence/absence of anaemia

  • The red cell indices show the type of anaemia

  • The MCV (mean. corpuscular volume) is usually between 80-100 fl

    • MCV < 80 fl: microcytic

    • MCV 80-100 fl: normocytic

    • MCV > 100 fl: macrocytic


Red cell indices 2
Red cell indices-2 cells in the circulation

  • The haematocrit reflects the portion of the blood that consists of RBCs.

    • It is used exstensively in the USA as an indicator of anaemia, but not elsewhere

  • The MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) reflects the amount Hb/RBC

  • The MCHC gives an idea of the colour of the RBCs

  • Nowadays the MCV is accurately measured and it is the most important


Fbc direct from the cell counter
FBC direct from the cell counter cells in the circulation


Haematocrit
Haematocrit cells in the circulation


White cell count
White cell count cells in the circulation

  • The total WCC is 4,0-11,0 x 109/l

  • Most of the white cells are neutrophils

  • A leucopenia is mostly caused by a decreased number of neutrophils, but not always

  • A leucocytosis is mostly caused by an increased number of neutrophils, but not always

  • Therefore it is important to know the absolute count of individual types white cells


Report of the blood smear
Report of the blood smear cells in the circulation

  • Although one can obtain a lot of information from the FBC, always read the comments on the blood morphology

  • The morphology can give information about e.g. malaria, left shift, activated lymphocytes, etc, while most machines cannot do this

    • Comments put the counts in perspective and lead one to determine the cause of an anaemia, etc.


Red cell shapes

Red cell shapes cells in the circulation


Round macrocytosis e g alcohol
Round macrocytosis cells in the circulation(e.g. alcohol)

Oval macrocytes (e.g. megaloblastic anaemia


Acanthocytes e g liver disease
Acanthocytes cells in the circulation(e.g. liver disease)

Blood smear

Electron microscopy


Polychromasia e g haemolysis
polychromasia, e.g. haemolysis cells in the circulation

Rouleaux (e.g. TB, HIV)


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Spherocytes: blood smear cells in the circulation

Shape of normal RBCs & spherocytes


Target cells e g liver disease
Target cells (e.g. liver disease) cells in the circulation


Common white cell disorders

Common white cell disorders cells in the circulation


Neutrophils
Neutrophils cells in the circulation

  • Neutropenia

    • Mostly caused by suppression

    • Also called agranulocytosis

    • Causes: antithyroid, anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, cytostatics chemotherapy, radiation

    • Effects: infections (esp. respiratory), opportunistic, fungi

  • Neutrophilia (neutrophil leucocytosis)

    • Mostly caused by bacterial infections

    • With severe infections they can show toxic granulation

    • A leftshift indicates immature WBCs - infection


Neutrophil leucocytosis
Neutrophil leucocytosis cells in the circulation

Toxic granulation


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Band cell (left shift) cells in the circulation

Döhle bodies (infection)


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Leucoerythroblastic anaemia: cells in the circulationWhite cell & red blood cell precursors


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Leucoerythroblastic cells in the circulationanemia:bone marrow infiltrate by cancer cells


Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes cells in the circulation

  • Lymphopenia

    • Mostly caused by drugs, e.g. steroids

  • Lymphocytosis

    • Mostly caused by viral infections

    • With severe virus infections the lymphocytes can appear activated


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

The leucocyte in viral infection: cells in the circulationreactive lymphocytes


Monocytes eosinophils
Monocytes & eosinophils cells in the circulation

  • Monocytosis

    • Mostly caused by chronic infections, e.g. TB

  • Eosinophilia

    • Parasitic infections, allergies, skin conditions, neoplasia


Storage artefact blood that lies around
Storage artefact cells in the circulation(blood that lies around)


Other infections

Other infections cells in the circulation


Imaging session haematology mbchb v
HIV cells in the circulation

Loose nuclear fragments

Acid-fast bacilli in bone marrow (TB)


Malaria
Malaria cells in the circulation

Thick smears

Falciparum trophozoites

Falciparum gametocytes(longstandinginfection

Non-falciparum malaria (large cells)


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Geographic distribution malaria cells in the circulation- and haemoglobinopathies

2002


Fe deficiency

Fe deficiency cells in the circulation


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Pallor cells in the circulation

“Strawberry” tongue:Fe deficiency

Hands useful, regardless of ethnicity


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Fe deficiency: spoon nails cells in the circulation


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Hypochromic microcytic RBCs cells in the circulation


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

No Fe stain cells in the circulationin marrow particle

Normal (blue) Fe stain of marrow particle


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Gastrointestinal bleed because of cancer cells in the circulation(Ba contrast)


Megaloblastic anaemia

Megaloblastic anaemia cells in the circulation


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Oval macrocyte cells in the circulation

Megaloblastic BM


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Vit B cells in the circulation12 deficiency: demyelinisation


Haemolytic anaemias

Haemolytic anaemias cells in the circulation


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Jaundice of haemolysis cells in the circulation



Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Cold (IgM) autoimmune haemolytic anaemia: agglutination cells in the circulation

Macroscopic agglutination in tube


Mechanical haemolysis schistocytes
Mechanical haemolysis (schistocytes) cells in the circulation


Causes inside the rbc membrane
Causes cells in the circulationinside the RBC membrane

  • RBC cytoskeleton under phospholipid-membrane

    • Complex mutations

  • Hereditary spherocytosis

    • Different mutations give rise to loss of membrane (soccer ball RBCs)

  • Rx: splenectomy 

Gall stones after chronic haemolysis (barium in gall bladder)


Causes inside the rbc
Causes cells in the circulationinside the RBC

  • Enzyme deficiencies

    • G6PD deficiency common in Africa

  • Haemoglobinopathies

    • Thalassaemias, sickle Hb

  • Infections

    • Malaria

      • Falciparum 


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Aplastic anaemia: cells in the circulationpurpura ofthrombocytopenia


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

  • Fanconi anaemia cells in the circulation

  • Sister (L) is small,has abnormal thumbs,café-au-lait spots& an indwelling catheter forher regular trans-fusions

  • Sister (R) normal


Platelets
Platelets cells in the circulation

  • Thrombocytopenia

    • Decreased production (bone marrow failure) or increased destruction (ITP)

  • Thrombocytosis

    • Reactive: infections, post-splenectomy

    • Thrombocytaemia: essential thrombocythaemia


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Describe the red cells please cells in the circulation.


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

What are these red cells called? cells in the circulation





Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Paper case 1 cells in the circulation

  • A. is a forty-five year-old lady that is prematurely grey. She complains that she has become increasingly tired over the last few months. She can hardly walk around a block. She is also losing her balance. She is pale, slightly jaundiced and has cracks in the corners of her mouth. Her tongue is raw and her pulse is fast. She has lost her sense of vibration in her arms and legs. She has a white cell count of 2.5 x 109/l (normal 4-11 x 109/l), haemoglobin of 6 g/dl (normal 12.5-16.5 g/dl) and platelets of 100 x 109/l (normal 150-400 x 109/l). Her red cells are oval and macrocytic. The nuclei of her neutrophils are hypersegmented.


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

  • Paper case 2 cells in the circulation

  • N. is a 50-year old man that presents with exercise intolerance. He eats a balanced diet. He had a partial gastrectomy for a bleeding ulcer, five years ago. His full blood count shows: white cells 4 x 109/l, haemoglobin 9 g/dl and platelets 100 x 109/l. The rapport says that he has oval macrocytes.


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Paper case cells in the circulation3

  • Ms H. is 30 years old. She has three children and is pregnant. Her husband lost his job recently and they live in Joe Slovo informal settlement. She feels increasingly tired and presented at the Polyclinic. She becomes unsteady and complains that her heart beats fast. She has developed a taste for clay.

  • She is pale and has slight ankle oedema. Her pulse is 90/min. She is 30 weeks pregnant. Her haemoglobin is 8 g/dl with a mean cell volume (MCV) of 65 fl.


Imaging session haematology mbchb v

Paper case cells in the circulation4

T. is an 18-year old woman that has become increasingly pale and tired over the last fortnight. Her eyes are yellow. Her left upper abdomen is tender. Her mother had a similar condition as a youngster and had a splenectomy. After the operation her mother’s symptoms never recurred. T’s FBC shows the following: WBCs 7 x 109/l, haemoglobin 8 g/dl and platelets 250 x 109/l. Her blood smear shows spherocytes and her reticulocyte count is raised.