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The Triumphs of a Crusade. Chapter 29 Section 2. I Riding For Freedom A. New Volunteers. CORE Freedom Riders test SC case that ended segregation on busses Beat up riders and firebombed the bus  end Freedom Ride SNCC volunteers continue and ride to Birmingham (Alabama)

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The triumphs of a crusade

The Triumphs of a Crusade

Chapter 29 Section 2

I riding for freedom a new volunteers
I Riding For FreedomA. New Volunteers

  • CORE Freedom Riders test SC case that ended segregation on busses

    • Beat up riders and firebombed the bus  end Freedom Ride

  • SNCC volunteers continue and ride to Birmingham (Alabama)

    • Police Com. Pull them off the bus & beat them take them to Tenn.

  • Return to bus term. And sit in white only waiting term.

    • Refused service until Robert Kennedy calls set off to Montgomery

Ii standing firm a integrating ole miss
II Standing FirmA. Integrating Ole Miss

  • James Meredith wins SC case allowing him to attend the all white University of Mississippi AKA Ole Miss

    • Gov refuses to allow him to register

  • JFK follows precedent used by Eisenhower in Little Rock & sends Marshalls to escort Meredith  riots on campus (2 deaths)

  • Federal officials protect him on campus and his parents at home

B heading to birmingham
B. Heading to Birmingham

  • Birmingham was city known for its strict enforcement of total segregation in public life

    • Reputation for racial violence

  • MLK & SCLC invited to help desegregate the city

  • MLK leads march into Birmingham on Good Friday  Pol. Com. Arrests them

    • MLK writes open letter to white rel. leaders

  • Posts bail & organizes over a thousand children march in Birmingham (the “Children’s Crusade”)  arrested

  • Next day another group of children march  fire hosed on Nat'l TV

    • Beat other and set dogs loose on them

  • These protests, econ. Boycott, & neg. media attention  end of segregation in Birmingham

  • Also convinced JFK that only a civil rights act would end the disorder and satisfy Af. Amer.

Iii marching to washington a a dream of equality
III Marching to Washington Birmingham (the “Children’s Crusade”)  arrestedA. A Dream of Equality

  • JFK demands congress pass a civil rights bill

    • Proposes one that guaranteed equal access to pub. Accommodations & gave US attorney power to file school desegregation suits

  • March on Washington (more than 250,000 ppl) including 75,00 whites

    • MLK stops reading written speech and improvises “I have a dream” speech

B more violence
B. More Violence Birmingham (the “Children’s Crusade”)  arrested

  • 2 weeks after MLK’s speech bombing at Birmingham church kills 4 girls

  • 2 months later JFK assassinated  JBJ carries his legacy & gets Civil Rights Act of 1964

    • Prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender giving access to public accommodations to all (libraries/parks, restaurants/etc.)

Iv fighting for voting rights a freedom summer
IV Fighting for Voting Rights Birmingham (the “Children’s Crusade”)  arrestedA. Freedom Summer

  • CORE & SNCC plan voting rights campaign that would gain Nat'l publicity  Congress to pass voting rights act

    • Project known as Freedom Summer focused on Mississippi

  • White college students recruited & taught non violence resistance tech.

    • 1,000 vol. (mostly white & 1/3 women) went to Miss to help the maj. Af. Amer. SNCC register voters

  • Disappearance of 3 civ. Rights workers no action by congress

B the selma campaign
B. The Selma Campaign Birmingham (the “Children’s Crusade”)  arrested

  • SCLC conducts major campaign in Selma (Alabama) were SNCC had been for 2 yrs.

    • Af. Amer. More than ½ of pop but only 3% of voters

  • MLK hoped that Selma Campaign would provoke a hostile white response  convince LBJ to sponsor a fed. Voting rights law

  • Demonstrator shot and killed  50 mile march from Selma to state cap. Of Montgomery

    • TV news bulletins interrupt TV scheduling to show extreme violence against marchers demonstrators pouring into Selma

  • LBJ urges congress to quickly pass new voting rights act

D voting rights act of 1965
D. Voting Rights Act of 1965 Birmingham (the “Children’s Crusade”)  arrested

  • 10 weeks after Selma to Montgomery march Congress passes Voting Rights Act of 1965

    • Eliminates the literacy test that disqualified many voters

    • Fed officials can enroll voters denied by state officials

  • Af. Amer voters – Selma 10% 60% in 4 yrs. & tripled in S

  • Huge civil rights victory BUT centuries of segregation and discrimination produced deep rooted SOCIAL & ECONOMIC inequalities  erupt in violence in Northern cities