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The Civil Rights Era. K-W-L - The Civil Rights Era. What I Know About the CRM. What I Want to Learn About the CRM. What I Learned About the CRM. The Civil Rights Era. Origins Of The Movement Executive Order 9981 Destabilization of the racial system during WWII

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slide3

K-W-L - The Civil Rights Era

What I Know

About the CRM

What I Want to Learn

About the CRM

What I Learned

About the CRM

slide4

The Civil Rights Era

  • Origins Of The Movement
  • Executive Order 9981
  • Destabilization of the racial system during WWII
  • Mass migration out of the segregated South
  • The Cold war and rise of independent states in the Third World
  • Mendez v. Westminster
  • Brown v. Board of Education
slide5

Executive Order 8802

  • 1941 - Roosevelt responded to the black leaders and issued Executive Order 8802
  • Declared - "There shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries and in Government, because of race, creed, color, or national origin." It was the first Presidential directive on race since Reconstruction.
  • The order also established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to investigate incidents of discrimination.
slide6

The Civil Rights Era

  • Small Group Activity
    • Timeline Construction
  • Directions:
    • Using the supplied poster board, construct a Civil Rights Timeline
      • Include the following:
        • Minimum TEN key events
        • Minimum Ten key personalities
      • Provide a brief description of each
    • Hypothesis:
      • Write a one-page summary where you hypothesize which event you believe had the biggest impact on the Civil Rights Movement.
      • This is just a hypothesis. Make an argument why you believe what you believe.
slide7

Small Group Activity: The 14th Amendment

  • Historical Context: The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is the most used and cited amendment in litigation in the court system. It forces all states to give equal protection under the law to all citizens of the United States and forbids the states from infringing on these federal rights.
  • Directions:
    • Analyze Primary Source Documents
    • Construct Data Table
    • Summarize
      • Impact on society

***Requires 14th Amendment Learning Packet – end of PowerPoint

slide9

The Brown Case

TTYN:What was the Plessey v. Ferguson decision?

What Was Going On

  • 1954, large portions of the United States had:
    • Racially segregated schools
    • Segregated public facilities
      • Which were constitutional so long as the black and white facilities were equal to each other.
slide10

Emmett Till

  • Horrified - At first, local whites
  • as well as blacks were horrified
  • by the crime.
  • Arrests - Bryant and Milam were
  • arrested for kidnapping even before
  • Emmett's body was found
  • National Attention - The Emmett Till case quickly attracted national attention.
slide11

Emmett Till

The Jury

slide12

Standing Up For Her Rights and Sitting Down For Justice

Preparation:

On 1st December 1955 after coming home from a hard days work, Rosa was sitting on the bus when the bus driver ordered her to give up her seat to a white man, who couldn’t find a seat in the “white section” of the bus.

“I knew I had the strength of my ancestors with me.”

-Rosa Parks

“..some of us must bear the burden of trying to save the soul of America”

- Martin Luther King

slide13

The Montgomery Boycott: What did we Learn???

The Leadership of King

“one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free”

  • Activist - A master at appealing to the deep sense of injustice among blacks and t the conscience of white America
  • Historian - Studies the writings on peaceful civil disobedience of Henry David Thoreau and Gandhi
slide14

The Greensboro Sit-Ins

TTYN: What does the sit-in reflect?

The sit-in reflected mounting frustration at the slow pace of racial change.

  • The Spark - The Greensboro sit-in would launched a decade of political activism.
    • What they demanded - Demonstrations demanding integration of parks, pools, restaurants, libraries, etc.
    • A Movement - By the end of 1960 over 70K Sit-Ins
slide15

Brought to you by CORE –

Congress of Racial Equality

slide16

Boynton v. Virginia

And

Irene Morgan v. The Commonwealth of Virginia

The How - Interracial group would board buses destined for the South. The whites would sit in the back and the blacks in the front. At rest stops, the whites would go into blacks-only areas and vice versa. 

The When - The Freedom Ride left Washington DC on May 4, 1961. It was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17, the seventh anniversary of the Brown decision

slide18

Selma

  • When - Jan., 1965, SNCC-led demonstration in Dallas County, Alabama
  • Why - Protesting voting rights
  • Faced stiff resistance
  • MLK asked to join
  • Feb. 17, 1965 Demonstration, protester Jimmy Lee Jackson fatally shot by police
slide19

LBJ And Civil Rights

The Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act

TTYN: In your own words, describe what you believe the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act constitute.

slide21

Ghetto Uprisings

  • Violence and uprisings widespread – 4 corners
  • Johnson appoints commission
  • Causes:
  • segregation and poverty
  • white racism
  • Black unemployment twice that of whites
  • Income half
slide26

In August 1955, 14-year-old Emmett Till traveled from his home in Chicago to the home of his great-uncle, Mose Wright, in Money, Mississippi. Soon after his arrival, Emmett joined a group of teenagers, seven boys and one girl, and went to Bryant’s Grocery and Meat Market for refreshments to cool off after a long day of picking cotton in the hot sun. Bryant’s Grocery, owned by a white couple, Roy and Carolyn Bryant, sold supplies and candy to a primarily black clientele of sharecroppers and their children. Emmett went into the storeto buy bubble gum. Some of the kids outside the store said they heard Emmett brag about having a white girlfriend back in Chicago, and also that he said "Bye, baby” to Carolyn Bryant.

A few days later, Roy Bryant, Carolyn’s husband, and his half-brother J. W.Milam kidnapped Emmett Till from Mose Wright’s home. They brutally beat him, took him to the edge of the Tallahatchie River, shot him in the head, fastened a large metal fan used for ginning cotton to his neck with barbed wire, and pushed his body into the river. Once Emmett was reported missing by Mose Wright, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant were arrested on kidnapping charges in LeFlore County. Three days later, Emmett Till’s decomposed corpse was pulled from the Tallahatchie River. Mose Wright identified the body froma ring with the initials L. T. (Till’s father’s initials). The murder of Emmett Till left an indelible mark on the African American community, especially for those boys who were around the same age as Emmett Till. Reginald Lindsay, today a judge, remembers what it meant to him as a young boy growing up in Birmingham, Alabama:

The mantra that was repeated to me (and I dare say to other boys my age) nearly every time I left my neighborhood, after August 1955, to go to a place where it was likely that I would encounter white people was:“Be careful how you talk to white women. You don’t want to end up like Emmett Till.”

slide27

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today!