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Experience Miner Training. Surface. Coal Processing Operation. Raw Coal Storage. Silos and Draw-off tunnels. Transported by belt to top of plant. Channeled through plant during the cleaning process by plant operator. Clean coal transported out to clean coal silo that has feeders.

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Coal processing operation l.jpg
Coal Processing Operation

  • Raw Coal Storage.

  • Silos and Draw-off tunnels.

  • Transported by belt to top of plant.

  • Channeled through plant during the cleaning process by plant operator.

  • Clean coal transported out to clean coal silo that has feeders.

  • Refuse goes to bin to be hauled away by trucks.

  • Train Load-out facility at bottom of hill by tracks.



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Mandatory Health and Safety Standards

  • Front End Loader – “Show Tape” and discussions.

  • Dozers – Stock Pile Safety Tapes and Discussions.

  • Refuse Truck – Show Pre-operational checks and discussions.

  • Chemicals

  • Weather

  • People


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Topic of Discussion

  • Mine Escape System.

    • Equipment

    • Scalping Tower

    • Prep Plant Buildings

  • Escape and Emergency Evacuation Plan

    • Exits

    • Fire Extinguishers

    • Fire Hose

  • Firewarning signals and Fire Fighting Procedures.

    • Call Security

    • 911 system


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Transportation Controls

  • Operation of Equipment –

    • Speed of Equipment;

    • Weather Conditions;

    • Road Conditions.

  • Controls for Transportation –

    • Traffic Signs

  • Communication Systems, Warning Signals and Directional Signs –

    • Belt Start Up;

    • Audible and Back Up Horns on Equipment;

    • Mirrors;

    • Traffic Flow;

    • Other Equipment.



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INTRODUCTION Firefighting

  • Reaction to a fire must occur in the early stages of an emergency.

  • Effective firefighting depends on your work habits

  • Judgment

  • Ability to react appropriately.


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FIRE PREVENTION Firefighting

  • Best prevention method – do not have one.

  • Know the location of fire fighting equipment.

  • Know how to use the fire fighting equipment.

  • Obey “NO SMOKING” signs.


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FIRE PREVENTION Firefighting

  • Containers must be clearly marked and NO SMOKING signs posted for stored.

  • Diesel Fuel

  • Gasoline

  • Other flammable liquids


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FIRE PREVENTION Firefighting

  • FUELING AREAS:

  • Internal combustion engines shut off.

  • Does not include diesels.

  • No smoking, open lights.


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FIRE PREVENTION Firefighting

  • Use noncombustible safety containers for flammable liquids.

  • Discard damaged or leaking containers

  • Keep storage areas free of debris, such as burnable trash, oily rags, and matches.

  • Don’t store combustibles near welding and cutting equipment.

  • Don’t discard batteries that could produce heat


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FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT areas.

  • MSHA’s Law:

  • Preparation plants, tipples, drawoff tunnels and other surface installations must be equipped with portable fire extinguishers sufficient to meet any fire hazard that could exist in these structures.


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FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT areas.

  • Preparation plants equipped with waterlines, with outlet valves on each floor, and with sufficient fire hose to project a water stream to any point in the plant.

  • Exception – Freezing conditions exist or water is not available.

  • 2,500 square feet of floor space will need 125 pounds of dry powder extinguisher.


Firefighting equipment l.jpg
FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT areas.

  • Fire extinguishers provided at;

  • Mobile equipment

  • Portable welding units

  • Auxiliary equipment when operated more than 600 feet that has fire extinguishers

  • Permanent electrical installations

  • Combustible liquid storage installations.

  • Equip carrying flammable liquid – additional.


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IMPORTANT RULES fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Check your work area and know where fire extinguishers are kept.

  • Always have a used extinguisher replaced.

  • Have damaged extinguisher replaced.

  • Be sure fire extinguishers are checked and dated at least every 6 months.


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WHEN FIRE STARTS fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • THE ACTION YOU TAKE IN FIRST FEW MINUTES COULD BE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A MINOR AND MAJOR DAMAGE, AND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH.


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INITIAL ACTION fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • FIRST determine what is burning if possible.

  • Try to extinguish it

  • Warn others in the immediate area.

  • Get clear of any area that poses an immediate threat – getting trapped.

  • Contact your supervisor for help.

  • Sound an alarm if available.

  • If safe, return and keep trying to put out.


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TYPES OF FIRES fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Four categories:

  • Class A – wood, coal fires, burning paper and cloth.

  • Think Class A as those that leave Ashes

  • Water or Dry Chemical used to put out fire.


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TYPES OF FIRES fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Class B – Burning flammable liquids, gasoline, fuel oils.

  • Think Class B as those involving contents that will Boil.

  • Dry chemical, foam, vaporized liquids (CO2), and water fog used to put out this type of fire.


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TYPES OF FIRES fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Class C – Electrical fires, electrical motors, battery equipment, transformers, circuit breakers, and cables.

  • Think Class C fires as Current fires.

  • Dry chemical and vaporized liquids(CO2) used to put put out this type of fire.


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TYPES OF FIRES fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Class D – burning metals, magnesium, and sodium.

  • Special extinguishers developed for use.

  • Should not use normal ABC extinguishers, they make matters worse.


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FIRE EXTINGUISHER RATING fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Rated for use – A-B-C-D.

  • For example a 2A 10BC rated fire extinguisher

  • Letter represents the type of fire it will put out.

  • Number will represent size of fire it will put out.


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FIRE FIGHTING TECHNIQUE fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Approach no closer than 6 feet from the fire.

  • Grasp the extinguisher firmly and activate.

  • Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire and squeeze the handle.

  • Use a side-to-side sweeping motion to blanket the fire.

  • BE AWARE of exploding material.

  • Watch fire after brought under control.


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Mine Escape System fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Know your exits!

    • Plant

    • Draw Off Tunnels

    • Other Buildings

  • Plan In Effect.

  • Where to Gather.

    • Parking Lot

    • Head Count of People.


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Ground Control fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Working safely in areas of water hazards;

  • Illumination of work areas;

  • Safe work procedures for miners during hours of darkness;


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Hazard Recognition fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Recognition of hazards;

  • Avoidance of hazards;


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What is an Accident? fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Unplanned event.

  • Personal injury or property damage must result or both.

  • WILL BE:

  • Direct Causes – unwanted release of energy.

  • Indirect Causes – Contributing factors.

  • Basic Causes – Management, Safety Policies not in place or not being followed and personal factors.


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How Many Surface Fatalities for 2006? fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Nine Fatalities out of the 47 deaths

  • This represents 19%.


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FIRST AID AND RESCUE SUPPLIES fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • KNOW the location of first aid and EMT kits.

    • Tool Room

    • Main Portal

  • If someone is injured – act quickly.

  • Notify your supervisor and Plant Control.

  • Call 911 and Security at Mine


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Surface First Aid Supplies fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS OF PART 77

  • SUPPLIES TO BE KEPT WHERE 10 OR MORE PERSONS WORK

  • 1 STRETCHER / BROKEN BACK BOARD

  • 24 TRIANGULAR BANDAGES

  • 8 ea. 4” BANDAGE COMPRESSES

  • 8 ea. 2” BANDAGE COMPRESSES

  • 12 ea. 1” ADHESIVE COMPRESSES

  • BURN REMEDY

  • 2 CLOTH BLANKETS

  • 1 RUBBER BLANKET OR SUBSTITUTE

  • 2 TOURNIQUETS

  • SPIRITS OF AMMONIA

  • SPLINTING MATERIAL


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Emergency Medical Procedures fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • EMERGENCY E-SQUADS

  • Beallsville

  • Smith Township

  • Barnesville

  • Powhatan

  • LIFE FLIGHT:

  • Allegheny General

  • Call security in the event of an injury.


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FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

OBSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

Obstructed Airways -

Causes & Precautions

Recognizing FBAO

Poor Air Exchange

No Air Exchange

The Sub diaphragmatic

Abdominal Thrust

(Heimlich Maneuver)

Conscious Victim

Unconscious Victim


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Pressure fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

Points

Direct Pressure

DirectPressure

with Elevation

Using an Air Splint


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BRUISE (CONTUSION) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.


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R fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.EST

ICE

COMPRESSION

ELEVATION


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Neck & Spinal Injuries fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • CARE AND TREATMENT

    • ABC’s

    • Use extreme care in initial examination — minimal movement

    • apply cervical collar

    • treat for shock

    • treat any other injuries

    • maintain body heat

    • if movement required, 'log roll' and use assistants

    • always maintain casualty's head in line with the shoulders

    • urgent transport


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HEAD INJURIES fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • HEADACHE

  • PHYSICAL SIGNS

  • LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

  • CONFUSION

  • UNEQUAL / UNRESPONSIVE PUPILS

  • PARALYSIS

  • LOSS OF SENSATION

  • IMPARED VISION

  • NAUSEA

  • CHANGING RESPIRATION PATTERNS

  • SIEZURES


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CARE OF fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

HEAD INJURIES

  • STABILIZE HEAD

  • MAINTAIN AIRWAY

  • KEEP PATIENT STILL

  • CONTROL BLEEDING

  • DRESS OPEN WOUNDS

  • CARE FOR SHOCK

  • PROVIDE OXYGEN

  • MONITOR VITALS

  • MONITOR LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS

  • BE PREPARED FOR VOMITING


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SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

BONE OR JOINT INJURIES

BRUISING

PAIN

SWELLING

DEFORMITY

TENDERNESS

GRATING

EXPOSED BONE ENDS

JOINT LOCKED IN POSITION


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Must be a straight line break fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

Can be formed to

shape of deformity

Splints

Be careful of temperature change


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CONTROL ANY BLEEDING fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

APPLY A STERILE

DRESSING

CUT AWAY CLOTHING

TO EXPOSE THE

INJURY

STABILIZE THE LIMB

AND ASSESS


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BANDAGE THE fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

WOUND

SECURE THE LIMB

TO THE SPLINT

PAD THE SPLINT


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APPLYING AN AIRSPLINT fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

INFLATE THE SPLINT

BY MOUTH ONLY

PLACE THE SPLINT

ON THE LIMB

CHECK TO MAKE SURE SPLINT IS NOT OVER-INFLATED


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DRESSING fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit. -

covers

the wound.

BANDAGE -

Holds a dressing

in place.


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Lifting Techniques fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

Two person carry

4 person straddle


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Health fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Noise

    • Review Noise Law and 62.180 training

  • Dust

    • Review purpose and requirements.

  • MSDS

    • Review chemicals and Hazcom program.


Noise l.jpg
NOISE fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Rock concerts and Mining Operations have in common – both can produce sounds at level that can permanently damage your hearing.

  • Intensity of sound is the pressure that is made when sound is produced.

  • Loud noises are with a lot of pressure.

  • Soft noises are with little pressure.


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§ 62.101 Definitions fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Action Level: TWA8 of 85 dBA or dose of 50%

  • Permissible Exposure Level (PEL): TWA8 of 90 dBA or dose of 100%

  • Reportable Hearing Loss: an average of 25 dB or more shift at 2, 3, and 4 Hertz in either ear

  • Standard Threshold Shift (STS): an average of 10 dB or more shift at 2, 3, and 4 Hertz in either ear


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§ 62.120 Action Level (AL) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • With MSHA accepting a 2 decibel error;

  • 87 dBA TWA8, or 66% dose, if noise survey indicates 66% dose or more then

  • Miner must be enrolled in Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) when noise exposure equals or exceeds AL

  • Wearing of hearing protectors is voluntary when in the Action Level but recommended


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§ 62.130 Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Over 92 dBA TWA8, or over 132% dose

  • No adjustment for use of hearing protectionbut hearing protection is mandatory if PEL is exceeded until engineering and administrative controls are implemented

  • Old ruleallowed adjustment for wearing hearing protection devices.


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§ 62.130 PEL (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Feasible engineering and administrative controls required when PEL exceeded

  • Administrative controls must be posted and copy provided to affected miner

  • Mine operator must continue to use E&A controls even if they do not reduce noise exposure to PEL

  • 115 dBA maximum sound levelnot to exceed 15 minutes during any shift / noise survey


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§ 62.140 Dual Hearing Protection Level (DHPL) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • 107 dBA TWA8, or 1046%

  • Must take actions required for noise exposures exceeding PEL

  • Dual hearing protection must be provided and worn if level exceeded


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§ 62.110 Noise Exposure Assessment fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Performance based standard, sampled for entire shift - 8 hrs, 10 hrs, or 12 hrs (normal work day).

  • Mine operator must establish a system of monitoring to ensure compliance with rule

  • Operator must meet requirements specified for determining miner’s noise dose


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§ 62.110 Noise Exposure Assessment (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Cannot adjust for hearing protector worn

  • Must assess miner’s noise exposure over his/her full work shift


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§ 62.110 Noise Exposure Assessment (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Miners and their representative have right to observe monitoring (no pay required)

  • Mine operator must notify miner of exposure at or above AL, above PEL, and above DHPL

  • Notification must be in writing and given to miner within 15 days of determination

  • Copy must be kept as long as miner is exposed at or above AL, plus 6 months


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§ 62.150 Hearing fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.Conservation Program (HCP)

  • Miner must be enrolled if exposure at or above action level

  • HCP must include:System of Monitoring 62.110 Hearing Protectors 62.160 Audiometric Testing 62.170 - 62.175 Training 62.180 Recordkeeping 62.190


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§ 62.160 Hearing Protectors fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Mine operator must provide to miners whose exposure equals or exceeds AL

  • Miner must wear at or above AL when: - STS found; or, - more than 6 mo. before miner can receive baseline audiogram

  • Miner must wear above PEL & DHPL


62 160 hearing protectors cont l.jpg
§ 62.160 Hearing Protectors (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Mine operator must provide a selection of HPs including at least two muff and two plug types

  • Must ensure HP is fitted, in good condition, & maintained per manufacturer’s instructions

  • Provide replacements at no cost to miner

  • Permit additional selection when medical pathology warrants


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§ 62.180 Training fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Within 30 days of enrollment in HCP, and every 12 months thereafter, miner must be trained in:

  • effects of noise on hearing

  • purpose and value of wearing HPs

  • advantages/disadvantages of HPs

  • care, fitting and use of HPs

  • general requirements of Part 62

  • operator/miner responsibilities re. Controls

  • purpose and value of audiometric testing


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§ 62.170 Audiometric Testing fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Provided at no cost to the miner

  • Voluntary on part of miner

  • Audiometric tests to be conducted by

    • a physician

    • an audiologist

    • a qualified technician under direction of physician or audiologist


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§ 62.170 Audiometric Testing (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Must be offered to each miner enrolled in HCP(may use existing audiogram if it meets 62.171)

  • Baseline audiogram offered and provided within 6 mo. of enrollment in HCP (12 mo. if mobile test van used)

  • Quiet period - No workplace noise exposure for 14 hours prior to baseline audiogram

  • May substitute hearing protection for quiet period


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§ 62.170 Audiometric Testing (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Annual audiogram - must be offered every 12 mo. for as long as miner in HCP

  • Annual audiogram must be deemed a revised baseline when:

    • Standard Threshold Shift (STS) is permanent, or

    • significant improvement in hearing over baseline audiogram


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§ 62.171 Audiometric Test Procedures fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Mine operator must compile an audiometric test record for each miner tested, including:

  • name and job classification of miner

  • copy of all miner’s audiograms

  • evidence audiograms conducted using scientifically valid procedures

  • any exposure determinations under 62.110

  • results of follow-up exams (if any)


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§ 62.171 Audiometric Test Procedures (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Mine operator must maintain audiometric test record for the duration of the miner’s employment, plus at least 6 months

  • Must make records available to authorized representative of the Secretary


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§ 62.172 Evaluation of Audiograms fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Mine operator must

  • inform audiogram evaluator of Part 62 requirements and provide test records

  • have physician, etc. determine audiogram’s is valid

  • determine occurrence of STS (10 dBshift) or reportable hearing loss (25 dB shift)

  • obtain results/interpretation within 30 days


62 172 evaluation of audiogram cont l.jpg
§ 62.172 Evaluation of Audiogram (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Mine operator

  • shall have retest conducted within 30 days when audiogram is invalid

  • may have retest conducted within 30 days to confirm STS or reportable loss and may use retest as the annual audiogram

  • may have results adjusted for aging, tables and procedures provided

  • adjustment for aging must be applied to both baseline and annual audiograms


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§ 62.173 Follow-up Evaluation when an Audiogram is Invalid fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • If a valid audiogram cannot be obtained due to suspected medical pathology caused or aggravated by noise exposure or wearing HPs, operator shall:

    • refer miner for clinical evaluation

    • instruct evaluator to inform miner of results

    • instruct evaluator of confidentiality


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§ 62.174 Follow-up Corrective Measures fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Within 30 days of confirmed STS operator must:

    • retrain the miner per 62.180

    • allow selection of a new or different HP

    • review effectiveness of engineering and/or administrative controls to identify and correct any deficiencies


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§ 62.175 Notification of Results; reporting requirements fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Within 10 days of receiving audiogram or follow-up results, operator mustnotify miner in writing of:- results including STS or a reportable loss- the need and reason for any further testing or evaluation

  • Reportable hearing loss - must be reported to MSHA under 30 CFR Part 50


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§ 62.180 Training fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • effects of noise on hearing

  • purpose and value of wearing HP

  • advantages/disadvantages of HP

  • care, fitting and use of HP

  • operator/miner responsibilities regarding controls

  • purpose and value of audiometric testing

The 4 “P’s” of occupational hearing loss: It’s

permanent, painless, progressive and preventable.


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§ 62.190 Records fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Mine operator must provide access to authorized representatives of Secretaries of Dept. of Labor and Dept. of Health and Human Services for all records required under Part 62


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§ 62.190 Records (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Mine operator must within 15 days of written request:

    • provide access to miner or miner’s designee (with written consent) for all records maintained under Part 62 for that miner

    • provide access to miners’ representative designated under Part 40 for training records or notice of exposure determination

    • provide access to former miner, for records which indicate his or her own exposure


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§ 62.190 Records (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • When a person with access to records requests a copy of a record, the first copy will be at no cost to that person, and any additional copies requested must be provided at reasonable cost


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§ 62.190 Records (cont.) fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • When ceasing business, mine operator must transfer records to successor operator

  • Successor operator must receive and maintain records per standard

  • Successor operator shall use baseline, or revised baseline audiograms obtained by original operator to determine STS or reportable hearing loss


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RESPIRABLE DUST fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • BLACK LUNG –

  • Long periods of time, a miner who is exposed to respirable coal dust suspended in the air can develop diseases.

  • Only detected by X-rays.

  • Takes about 15 years for disease to progress to a point that permits diagnosis.


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RESPIRABLE DUST fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • QUARTZ –

  • Silicosis – Dust consumption, miner’s asthma.

  • It is the type that claims the largest number of victims.

  • “Rock” dust in the air.


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DUST CONTROL MEASURES fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Two methods commonly used to control dust at its source.

  • Water

  • Calcium and watering of haulroads.


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RESPIRATORY DEVICES fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

FACTS AND OBJECTIVES


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Training Requirements fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • Physical and Health Hazards of chemicals

  • HazCom program, Labeling Systems, MSDS’s, Obtaining hazard information

  • Location and availability of written HazCom program

  • Where hazardous materials are located

  • How to detect and protect from hazardous chemical exposure


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Hazard Determination fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit. You must...

  • Identify the chemicals at the mine.

  • Determine if they can be a physical or health hazard.

    • Physical Hazards can cause injuries. The chemical may be a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, an organic peroxide, or an oxidizer. It may be flammable, explosive, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive.

    • Health Hazards can cause illnesses. The effects may be acute (of short duration) where symptoms often appear immediately, or chronic (of persistent duration) where symptoms usually appear after some time.


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General Company Policy fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

Hazard Determination

Labeling

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS’s)

Training

Chemical Lists

Contractor Work

Our HazCom Program Includes:


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Basics of Warning Labels fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • A label is a notice affixed to a container that provides information about the contents inside the container.

  • When the contents of the container are classified as a hazardous substance a label should be provided.


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Basic Information on a Warning Label fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • The name of the chemical substance in the container that can be cross referenced to an MSDS.

  • A hazard warning that describes the physical and health hazards of the substance in the container.

  • The name, address and phone number of the manufacturer.


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Physical and Health Hazard Information fire extinguisher that can not be placed further than 50 feet away from any unit.

  • A common form of listing physical and health hazards involves the use of a color scheme:

    • Red - Fire Hazard

    • Blue - Health Hazard

    • Yellow - Reactivity Hazard

    • White - Special Hazard Directions


There is a numerical rating system for each category to describe the degree of seriousness l.jpg
There is a numerical rating system for each category to describe the degree of seriousness.

  • Zero (0) - Minimal Hazard

  • One (1) - Slight Hazard

  • Two (2) - Moderate Hazard

  • Three (3) - Serious Hazard

  • Four (4) - Extreme Hazard


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Chemical Labeling Systems describe the degree of seriousness.

American National Standards Institute

ANSI Z129.1

Precautionary Labeling for Hazardous Materials


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4 - DEADLY describe the degree of seriousness.

3 - EXTREMELY DANGEROUS

2 - HAZARDOUS

1 - SLIGHT HAZARD

0 - NO HAZARD

4 - BELOW 73 F

3 - BELOW 100 F

2 - BELOW 200 F

1 - ABOVE 200 F

0 - WON’T BURN

RED

BLUE

YELLOW

REACTIVITY

WHITE

4 - MAY DETONATE

3 - MAY DETONATE WITH

SHOCK & HEAT

2 - CHEMICAL CHANGE,

MAY BE VIOLENT

1 - UNSTABLE IF HEATED

0 - STABLE

OXY - OXIDIZER

ACID - ACIDIC

ALK - ALKALI

CORR - CORROSIVE

W - USE NO WATER

- RADIATION HAZARD

FIRE HAZARD

(FLASH POINTS)

HEALTH HAZARD

SPECIFIC HAZARD


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Hazardous Material Code ID describe the degree of seriousness.


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Chemical Labeling Systems describe the degree of seriousness.

Chemical labeling is most effective when used in conjunction with:

- Material Safety Data Sheets

- Training on Safe Handling of Chemicals

- and HazCom!


What is a material safety data sheet l.jpg
What is a Material Safety Data Sheet? describe the degree of seriousness.

The MSDS is a detailed information bulletin prepared by the manufacturer or importer of a chemical that describes the physical and chemical properties, physical and health hazards, routes of exposure, precautions for safe handling and use, emergency and first-aid procedures, and control measures.


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What to Do? describe the degree of seriousness.

  • If you get into a chemical substance and you do not know what to do, contact plant operator giving them the product name information.

  • Master MSDS sheets are filed by product name not manufacturer.

  • They can guide you or your co-worker through the treatment.


Health and safety aspects of tasks l.jpg
Health and Safety Aspects of Tasks. describe the degree of seriousness.

  • Working inside the plant;

    • Working off extension ladders, man lifts, or above heights greater than 6-feet.

      • Safety harness and lanyards.

    • Electric Hands tools and extensions cords.

      • No locking device for trigger

    • 1st floor ceiling nuclear gauges.

      • Safe unless they fall off ceiling, exit building.

    • Removing guards

      • Equipment locked out from movement and plant operator notified.

    • Working on electrical equipment.

      • Locked out and tagged at MCC room.

    • Hazardous chemicals.

      • Master file for MSDS sheets.


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Operating Equipment describe the degree of seriousness.

  • Pre-Operational checks

  • Back up horns

  • Have mirrors adjusted and clean

  • Audible horn

  • Wear Seat belts

  • Proper working brakes

  • Drive according to the conditions of the roadway

  • Be a defensive driver.

  • Any item that affects the safe operation of the equipment must be removed from service

  • Overhead power lines.


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This shows a 6 foot describe the degree of seriousness.

person on each side,

and in front of a

large haul truck.

Visibility


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The operator looking out the right side will not see a person closer than 70’, less than 9’ out the left side, and less than 40’ in front of the truck.

Visibility


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Visibility person closer than 70’, less than 9’ out the left side, and less than 40’ in front of the truck.

The operator looking out the right side will not see the ground closer than 105’, less than 16’ out the left side, and less than 62’ in front of the truck.


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The black pick-up is parked about 65’ in front of the haul truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

Visibility


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Dozer Operation truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Pre-operational checks.

  • No walking on stockpile above a reclaiming operation.

  • Communication very important.

  • SCSR’s provided.

  • E-stop provided for feeders.

  • Stockpile work most dangerous.


Close calls l.jpg
Close Calls truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Dozer operator traveled across a feeder to do some clean up work.

  • As he traveled back across he noticed the indicator light on that showed the feeder running.

  • The dozer fell into the hole.


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Close Call Incident truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Plant using 2 feeders. Plant opr. increased the flow to one of the feeders.

  • The dozer opr. was pushing coal away to allow for more coal storage.

  • The dozer fell into the #4 feeder backwords


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Close Calls truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Dozer was being operated over the No. 3 feeder on the raw coal pile when the coal underneath the dozer collapsed.

  • The dozer sank backwards and was engulfed in the void of the feeder.


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Best Practices truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Know associated dangers.

  • Indicate location of feeder points

  • Establish system of communications.

  • Never push coal into an active feeder until a cone begins to form on the surface of the pile and always push perpendicular to the cone.

  • If cone does not appear on a operating feeder, take corrective action to eliminate the void.

  • High strength glass or guards over windows.

  • Know the approximate diameter of a possible void verses height of the coal.

  • Have a operational cap lamp in cab and SCSR.


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SCSR’s truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

Donning Technique for Dozer Operators


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CSE SR-100 RESCUER truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

open & activate,

mouthpiece , noseclip

seal damage

daily

do not

remove

comes

before

smoke

60 minutes

once

25 feet

foot on strap

10 years

blue

5 - 6 hours

none kept

remove before donning


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THE 3 + 3 DONNING PROCEDURE truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

KNEEL & LOOP

3 CRITICAL STEPS

3 SECONDARY STEPS

DAILY CHECKS

COLOR DOTS

SEAL AREAS FOR DAMAGE

PHYSICAL CONDITION (STRAP)

1) Remove unit from storage box and place on lap.

2) Turn on caplight, flashlight or dome light.

3) Unlatch band by pulling strap, remove top & bottom lids.

4) Loop neck strap over head.

5) Unfold breathing bag and locate orange tab.

6) Pull tab to rotate lever thru 90 degrees and puncture small

oxygen cylinder to initially inflate bag.

7) Immediately remove mouth plug, insert mouthpiece,

and exhale through mouthpiece into unit.

8) Apply the nose clip and breath normally.

9) Adjust the neck strap.

10) Put on the goggles

11) Clip on waist strap.

12) Breath through unit until rescue, if needed another SCSR

Is provided for additional time.

90 DAY

SHAKE TEST

Performed to detect any movement

of solids within the CSE SR-100


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CONVEYOR SAFETY truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

A CONVEYOR TRAVELING 600 FPM IS

6.8 MPH, OR 10 FPS. SINCE THE AVERAGE REACTION TIME IS 1/2 SECOND, A PERSON WOULD BE PULLED INTO THE MOVING BELT 5 FEET BEFORE THEY WOULD START TO REACT!

  • Pull Cords along entire length of belt.

  • Stop/Start Control Flag System – Explain

  • Warning on Start Up

  • Proper Method of Working on Belts - Explain

Don't get caught in the act !!


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MSHA Law truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

Surface


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Certified Person truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Certain examinations and tests are required to be made by a certified person.

  • Who are certified persons;

    • Person holding a state surface foreman papers.

    • Who is qualified by MSHA


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Methane Examinations truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Once during the each operating shift.

  • Immediately prior to any repair work in which welding or an open flame is used, or a spark may be produced.

  • Draw-off-tunnels of the raw and clean coal.

  • 1% or more, adjustments to the air must be made at once.


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What you need to know about CH4 truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Methane is lighter than air.

  • Specific gravity is .555

  • Found near top in draw off tunnels, bins or confined spaces.

  • Methane is explosive between 5-15%.

  • Will it ignite at a lower percentage?

  • When are you required to examine for CH4?

  • What do you do if a certain % is found?


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102 LED METHANE DETECTOR truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

TENTHS

WHOLE NUMBERS

DECIBEL

CHECKS DOWN OUTSIDE BEFORE TAKING UNDERGROUND

VISUAL EXAMINATION

BATTERY CHECK (3.4) OR MORE

ELECTRICAL ZERO CHECK (0.0 OR 0.1)


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ELECTRICAL ZERO truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

AND TEST BUTTON

CHARGING JACK


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ELECTRICAL ZERO TEST truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.


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HOLD BOTH BUTTONS AT SAME TIME FOR BATTERY CHECK truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

METHANE SENSOR


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BATTERY TEST truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.


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COAL DUST truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • COAL DUST must not be allowed to accumulate to dangerous amounts.

  • Coal dust in the air of, or in, or on the surfaces of, structures, enclosures, or other facilities.


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OVERHEAD HOISTING truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Overhead repairs are being made, adequate protection shall be provided.

  • For persons working or passing below this above area.

  • Method we will use:

    • Chains strung across opening with danger signs.

    • Remove after use.


Hoisting of materials l.jpg
Hoisting of Materials truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Hitches and slings suitable for handling the type of materials being hoisted.

  • People shall stay clear of hoisted loads.

  • Taglines shall be attached to hoisted material that require steadying or guidance.


Walkways l.jpg
WALKWAYS truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Safe means of access shall be provided and maintained to all working places.

  • Clear of material and other stumbling or slipping hazards.

  • Inclined areas – Nonskid material or equipped with cleats.

  • Kept clear of snow, ice, salted, sanded ASAP.

  • Provided with handrails and where necessary toe boards.

  • Crossovers or unders provided to cross conveyors.


Ladders l.jpg
LADDERS truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Maintained in good condition.

  • Wooden members of ladders not painted.

  • Fixed location vertical ladders – Provided with back guards.

  • Not allowed to incline backwards.

  • Anchored securely.


Illumination l.jpg
ILLUMINATION truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Adequate sufficient lighting to be provided in and on all surface:

  • pathways,

  • structures,

  • stairways,

  • switch panels,

  • loading and dumping sites,

  • working areas.


Storage of materials l.jpg
Storage of Materials truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Shall be stored and stacked in a manner to

  • Minimize stumbling or fall-of-material hazards.

  • Materials that can create hazards if the material was spilled be minimize the danger.

  • Hazardous materials stored in containers approved and labeled.


Storage of materials131 l.jpg
Storage of Materials truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall be stored in safe manner.

  • Valves on compressed gas cylinders shall be protected by covers when being transported or stored, and

  • By a safe location when the cylinders are in use.


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Surge and storage piles truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • No person shall be permitted to walk or stand immediately above a reclaiming area or in any other area at or near a surge or storage pile where the reclaiming operation may expose him to a hazard.


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Draw-Off-Tunnels truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Ventilated.

  • Methane below 1%

  • Use of fans if needed.

  • Provided with escapeways.

  • Keep cleaned.


Safeguards mech equip l.jpg
Safeguards/Mech. Equip. truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Gears, sprockets, chains, drive, head, tail and take-up pulleys, flywheels, couplings, shafts, saw blades, fan inlets, and similar exposed moving machine parts.

  • Overhead belts guarded if whipping action could be hazardous to people below.

  • Guards on specific areas of belts extend a distance to prevent a person reaching behind.

  • Guards shall be secured in place being operated.


Stationary grinding machines l.jpg
Stationary Grinding Machines truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Peripheral hoods capable of withstanding the force of a bursting wheel.

  • Adjustable tool rests set as close as practical to the wheel.

  • Safety washers

  • Grinding wheels according to specifications

  • Face shields or goggles worn when operating the grinding wheel.


Hand held power tools l.jpg
Hand-held power tools truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to operate the tools or shall be equipped with friction or other equivalent safety devices.

  • Required grounding if not double insulated.


Machinery equip operation and maintenance l.jpg
Machinery/Equip Operation and Maintenance truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Safe operating condition

  • If unsafe, removed from service immediately

  • Section 77.404

  • Repairs, Maintenance not performed until the power is off and machinery is blocked against motion.

  • Not lubricated while in motion where a hazard exists, unless equipped with extended fittings.


Performing work raised position l.jpg
Performing work raised position truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Not permitted to work on or from a piece of mobile equipment in a raised position until it has been blocked in place securely.

  • No work under machinery or equipment that has been raised until securely blocked in position.


Welding operations l.jpg
Welding Operations truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Welding operations shall be shielded.

  • Well ventilated

  • Go over mine policy pertaining to surface.


Mobile equipment warning devices l.jpg
Mobile Equipment Warning Devices truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Mobile Equipment such as front-end loaders, forklifts, tractors, graders, and trucks.

  • Audible alarm when put in reverse.

  • Alarms shall be audible above surrounding noise levels.

  • Maintained in operational condition.

  • Strobe light – set up for reverse can be used at night.


Electrical general l.jpg
Electrical - General truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Power circuits and electric equipment shall be de-energized before work is done on such circuits and equipment;

  • Except for trouble shooting.

  • Inspected monthly by a Qualified Person.

  • Insulated mats or other in place at switchboards and power control switches where shock hazard exist, such as fuse boxes, knife blade switches, and disconnect boxes.


High voltage power lines l.jpg
High Voltage Power lines truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Minimum vertical clearance.

  • Booms and masts be kept at least the min.

  • 69-114,000 volts Min. 12 feet

  • 115-229,000 volts Min. 15 feet

  • 230-344,000 volts Min. 20 feet

  • 345-499,000 volts Min. 25 feet

  • 500,000 or more Min. 35 feet


Id of equipment l.jpg
ID of Equipment truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Circuit breakers and disconnecting switches shall be labeled to show which units they control

  • Unless identification can be made readily by location.


Fire protection l.jpg
FIRE PROTECTION truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Fire fighting facilities and equipment shall be provided where fire hazards exists.

  • People instructed and trained annually in use.

  • Plan to follow in an event of a fire.

  • Waterlines provide 50 gpm at 50 psi.

  • Prep. Plant equipped with outlets on each floor and firehose water to reach all areas.


Fire protection cont l.jpg
Fire Protection – Cont. truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Provided with Fire extinguishers at:

  • Mobile equipment.

  • Permanent electrical installations.

  • Two fire extinguishers shall be provided at:

  • Liquid storage station;

  • Transfer pump of buried liquid storage tank;

  • Where welding, cutting is being performed.


Miscellaneous l.jpg
Miscellaneous truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Communications shall be provided for anyone working alone where a hazardous condition exists unless he/she can be heard, seen, or communicate.

  • Provide emergency transportation.

  • Provide first aid training.

  • Provide first aid equipment.


Miscellaneous147 l.jpg
Miscellaneous truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WORN –

  • Welding or burning.

  • Working with chemicals.

  • Gloves where injury to the hand/fingers

  • Hard hat

  • Protective footwear.

  • Snug fitting clothing.


Protective clothing l.jpg
Protective Clothing truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Safety belts and lines where danger exists of falling.

  • 2nd person tending the line if work required over bins, tanks, or other dangerous areas entered.

  • Lifejackets or belts where danger of falling into water exists.

  • Seatbelts in mobile equipment.


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Protective Clothing truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Different colored hardhat to indicate inexperienced – Red

  • Must be worn for a period of 1 year of experience on the surface.


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BACK SAFETY truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

LOCK IT IN


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Scope of the Problem truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Eight out of 10 Americans will experience a painful back episode some time during their lifetime.

  • There are over 350,000 spinal surgeries performed every year for ruptured discs and related problems.

  • Back pain ranks 2nd only to upper respiratory infections in terms of lost work days for workers in the U.S.


Scope of problem l.jpg
Scope of Problem truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Every day there are more than 10 million Americans seeking relief from back related symptoms.

  • Annual price tag for loss productivity and disability due to back pain is estimated at 50-100 billion dollars. (Direct Costs)


Scope of problem153 l.jpg
Scope of Problem truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Back pain has increased by 168%, 14 times faster than population growth.

  • Every 4.5 seconds someone in American industry incurs a back injury.

  • Average cost of medical care for each occurrence is 15,000 dollars.


Scope of problem154 l.jpg
Scope of Problem truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • 50% of all back injuries are most likely caused by improper lifting.

  • Men ages 25-35 are the most common work group to develop back problems.

  • Up to 33% of all disabling work-related injuries are back injuries.

  • Accounts for 40% of all worker’s compensation costs.


Risk factors for back injury l.jpg
Risk Factors for Back Injury truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Lifting Improperly – Not lifting, but improper lifting is the problem.

  • Sitting – Too long a period, poor posture, no low back support.

  • Smoking – People that smoke required back surgery 2-3 times more frequently than non-smokers. Smokers are at high risk for degenerative disk disease.


Risk factors for back injury156 l.jpg
Risk Factors for Back Injury truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Poor Nutrition – To much fast food.

  • Stress – Tense muscles cause lack of flexibility.

  • Lack of Exercise/Fitness Program – Try 30 minutes of exercise 3-4 times a week.

Don’t be a

“Couch Potato”


Physiology l.jpg
Physiology truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Spine has three natural curves and was intended to function in the upright position while sitting, lifting, pushing, pulling and lying down.

  • Everyone’s responsibility to care for themselves.


5 reasons for locking the back in l.jpg
5 Reasons for truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.Locking the Back In

  • Prevent Damaged Discs

  • Maintain low disc pressure

  • Protect the ligament system

  • Use back muscles properly

  • Use Olympic model for lifting


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What Should We Do? truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Exercise by:

  • Stretching what is tight and strengthen what is weak.

  • Standing Back Bends

  • Press-ups

  • Knee to Chest

  • Partial Sit-ups (crunches)


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What Can We Do? truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Proper Rest Positions

  • Choosing a Bed

  • Ergonomics

  • Start Lifting Properly

    • Task Analysis

    • Accident Report Analysis

    • Equipment Design

    • Know Your Physical Capacity


Posture l.jpg
POSTURE truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • We must change poor posture

  • It’s involved in every activity we perform;

    Sitting

    Bending

    Lifting

    Pushing

    Pulling

    Lying down


Muscles l.jpg
MUSCLES truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Four layers of intertwining abdominal and back muscles.

  • Act as movers for the spine.

  • Protects and stabilizes it.

  • Locking in the back draws on these back and abdominal muscles to help lock the spine.


Muscles163 l.jpg
MUSCLES truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • They are movers and stabilizers.

  • Assists in blood movement.

  • Heating the body.

  • FATIGUE:

  • Increased probability of having an injury occurs.

  • Muscle fatigue while doing repetitive tasks

  • Lack of rest for the muscles

  • What we eat feeds our muscles?


Nerves l.jpg
NERVES truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Radiate from the spinal column.

  • Will be compressed by bulged discs.

  • Typically will cause pain radiating down the legs (lumbar damage), or neck and shoulder pain (cervical damage) .

  • May cause muscle spasms.


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VERTEBRAE truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Function of support and protection.

  • Supports the head and trunk

  • Allows movement in three planes of motion through a system of;

    Muscles

    Levers (bones)

    Joints

    Ligaments


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VERTEBRAE truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • PROTECTS:

  • Spinal Cord

  • Nerve Roots

  • Blood Vessels

  • Absorbs stress & shock

  • Attachment for the discs


Vertebrae167 l.jpg
VERTEBRAE truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • 7 cervical – neck region – allows a great deal of motion.

  • 12 thoracic – middle back – as they descend little motion occurs because of rib attachment.

  • 5 lumbar – largest of the vertebrae – little motion.

  • 1 sacrum – acts as a solid base for spine to sit upon.


Back ligament l.jpg
BACK LIGAMENT truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

FRONT LIGAMENT

  • Runs entire front of the spine.

  • Thick and powerful ligament.

  • Reinforces the front wall of the disc.

  • Weak stomach muscles put extra load on the ligament (pot belly).

  • Runs the entire length of the spine.

  • Covers back of the spine.

  • Thins as it descends to thread-like.

  • At normal position with the three curves.

  • Concentration of nerve fibers making it sensitive to being stretched or added pressure put on it.


Slide169 l.jpg
Disc truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Cartilage Rings

  • Jelly fluid center.

  • Disc is a shock absorber

  • Allows movement in the spine.

  • Slipped disc’s do not occur – they bulge (herniation), leak (rupture) or compress.


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So What Does Happen? truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Too much time of improper sitting, lifting, bending, pushing, not exercising properly.

  • Develops small tears in the wall surrounding discs.

  • Slight bulge

  • Continue – possible herniation

  • Fluid escapes - Ruptured disc.


How to lift l.jpg
How To Lift truck. If it was about 6’ closer the operator probably would not be able to see it.

  • Get close to load.

  • Use the diagonal lift – one foot in front of the other, separated about shoulder width.

  • Lock the back in using your back and stomach muscles

  • Lift head and look straight ahead.

  • Push the load up with the hips and legs.

  • Get rid of the load as soon as possible.