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Chapter 9 Vertical Integration in Distribution

Chapter 9 Vertical Integration in Distribution

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Chapter 9 Vertical Integration in Distribution

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  1. Chapter 9Vertical Integration in Distribution

  2. FIGURE 8.1: CONTINUUM OF DEGREES OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION Buy Make Their people Their money Their risk Their responsibility Your people Your money Your risk Your responsibility Classical Market Contracting Quasi-Vertical Integration (Relational Governance) Vertical Integration How does the the work get done Third Party Does it (for a price) You do it The costs You and third party share costs and benefits Their operation (control) Their gain or loss Your operation (control) Your gain or loss The benefits

  3. The Continuum of Interfirm Exchange Format* Franchise Systems Hierarchy (within firm) Buying Groups Market Setting (outside firm)

  4. TABLE 8.2: EXAMPLES OF INSTITUTIONS PERFORMING SOME CHANNEL FLOWS Function Quasi-vertical Integration Classical Market Contracting Vertical Integration 1) Selling (only) Manufacturers’ “Captive” or Exclusive Producer Sales Representatives Sales Agency * Force (direct sales force) 2) Wholesale Independent Distribution Distribution Distribution Wholesaler Joint Venture Arm of Producer 3) Retail Independent Franchise Company Distribution (3rd party) Store Store * Operationally, a sales agency deriving more than 50% of its revenues from one principal

  5. Distribution Objectives 6 • Economic Theories of Vertical Integration • Transaction Cost Analaysis • Control Rights Theory

  6. Transaction Cost Analysis (TCA) • Focus: Economic Efficiency • Costs occur whenever firms perform “functions” • Fixed and variable components. • TCA states that firms should purse the most efficient channel arrangement based on cost avoidance. • “Make” = Direct channel = Vertical Integration • “Buy” = Indirect channel

  7. Key Assumptions and Conditions for TCA* • Channel members negotiate, monitor, and enforce exchange aspects by considering: • Bounded rationality • Opportunism • Uncertainty (Internal and External) • Specificity of assets • Frequency of transactions

  8. Internal versus External Transactions • Conditions for choosing hierarchy (Internal) over market (external): • A high level of environmental uncertainty should exist in the transaction cost assessment. • The assets involved should be highly specialized and unique to the exchange process. • The transaction should occur frequently. • Examples: Sherwin-Williams; Curtis Mathes • Third Breed: Clan Mechanism

  9. FG 7.2: HOW ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY IMPACTS VERTICAL INTEGRATION Highly Volatile Market Low Specificity High Specificity Highly Promising Market Less Promising Market Outsource Distribution to Retain Flexibility Until Uncertainty Is Reduced Vertically Integrate to Gain Control Over Employees And Avoid Small-Numbers Bargaining In Changing Circumstances Do Not Enter

  10. FIGURE 7.4: ROAD MAP TO THE VERTICAL INTEGRATION DECISION Presume outsourcing is more attractive than vertical integration Start here GO! NO Is potential business major or substantial? Outsourcing preferable YES Examine how function will develop (Take both roads and see where they go) Will substantial company-specific investments accrue? Will performance ambiguity be high? NO NO Outsourcing remains attractive YES YES Volatile, uncertain environment (accelerates effect of company-specific investments) Consider overturning outsource presumption: Vertical Integration, increasingly attractive

  11. II. Control Rights Theory (Jensen and Meckling 1976) 1. Two Types of Knowledge - General Knowledge: Easy to transfer - Specific Knowledge: Costly to transfer 2. Channel Organizing Principle: - Ownership is not the focus - Collocate control with knowledge

  12. Chapter 8Strategic Alliances in Distribution  Skip!

  13. Motivating the Channel Members

  14. 9 Major Topics for Motivating Channel Members • General Discussion • Finding out Channel Member Needs • Three Types of Programs that Motivate Channel Members* • Another Approach on Channel Member Motivation*

  15. Motivation Management MotivationManagement: The actions taken by the manufacturers to foster channel member cooperation in implementing the manufacturer’s distribution objectives

  16. Motivating Channel Members Basic Framework 1. Find out the needs and problems of channel members. 2.Offer support to the channel members that matches with their needs and problems. 3.Provide leadership through the effective use of power.

  17. Supporting Channel Members* 9 3 Types of Channel Trade Programs • Cooperative • Arrangements 2. Partnership or strategic alliance 3. Distribution programming

  18. 1. Cooperative Arrangements 9 Focuses on channel member needs & problems Simple & straightforward Conveys a clear sense of mutual benefit

  19. 9 Cooperative Arrangements Typical types of cooperative programs provided by Manufacturers to channel members • Cooperative advertising allowances • Payments for interior displays • Contests for buyers, salespeople, etc. • Allowances for warehousing functions • Payments for window display space • Detail men who check inventory • Demonstrators • Coupon-handling allowance • Free goods = A Common Element of above programs?

  20. 2. Partnerships & Strategic Alliances 9 Focus on a continuing and mutually supportive relationship between the manufacturer and its channel members

  21. Partnerships & Strategic Alliances 9 Three basic phases Manufacturer should make explicit statement of policies in areas such as product availability, technical support, pricing, etc. Manufacturer should assess all existing distributors as to their capabilities for fulfilling their roles 3. Manufacturer should continually appraise the appropriateness of the policies guiding his or her relationship with the channel members

  22. Strategic Distribution Alliance • Characteristics • Enduring connections • Substantial connections • What sets SDA apart from others • Trust • Commitment • Like Marriage? • Building Commitment • Expectation of continuity • Bilateral communication • Balanced Power between the two • Commitment is mutual

  23. Strategic Distribution Alliance • How to gauge the commitment by the other side? • Previous relationship • Actions • A word of caution: Not for every relationship • One side has special needs • The other side has the capability to meet those needs • Each side faces exit barriers

  24. 3. Distribution Programming 9 A comprehensive set of policies for the promotion of a product through the channel Developed as a joint effort between the manufacturer and the channel members to incorporate the needs of both

  25. Distribution Programming 9 Steps for developing a program: Analysis of marketing objectives & the kinds of levels of support needed from channel members • Ascertains channel members’ needs & problem areas Formulate specific channel policies that offer: • Price concessions to channel members • Financial advice • Some kind of protection for channel members 3. An Example: Category Management

  26. Relationship Differences 9 Cooperative Arrangements Intermittent interactions between manufacturer & channel members Partnerships & Strategic Alliances Continuing & mutually supportive relationship Distribution Programming Deals with virtually all aspects of the channel relationship

  27. 9 Another Approach on Motivating Channel Members* Theoretical foundation: Agency theory • Before you begin… • Screening and Qualification • Selection • As you begin… • Role Specification • Joint Planning

  28. 9 Another Approach (Cont’d) 3. After You Begin… 1. Channel Incentive: More than $$$! 2. Monitoring: Outcome Monitoring Behavior Monitoring 3. Enforcement: Legal Enforcement Market Enforcement Self Enforcement * Is this all?