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Legend Swimwear Factory Limited. Product Evaluation Dr. M.Y. Leung. Content (2 hours). Introduction of Product Evaluation Scope of Product evaluation Specifications of Swimwear Fabrics Fabric testing Fabric Construction Physical Properties Colorfastness Properties. Scope of Evaluation.

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legend swimwear factory limited

Legend Swimwear Factory Limited

Product Evaluation

Dr. M.Y. Leung

content 2 hours
Content (2 hours)
  • Introduction of Product Evaluation
  • Scope of Product evaluation
  • Specifications of Swimwear Fabrics
  • Fabric testing
      • Fabric Construction
      • Physical Properties
      • Colorfastness Properties
scope of evaluation
Scope of Evaluation

Labeling checking

Performance Testing

Product Inspection

Matching Pattern

Workmanship checking

Blind-stitched hem


Swimwear fabrics

  • Knits specializing on stretchable & functional knits

Swimwear Fabrics

  • Pigment print, pigment discharge print, rubber print, burn-out print, puff print


Back to Overall



Stretch woven fabrics with Embroidery


Back to Overall

care label for swimwear
Care-label for Swimwear
  • Wash in warm water (40°C)
  • Do not bleach
  • Do not iron
  • Do not dry-clean/ No dry-clean
  • Do not tumble dry/ Flat dry/ Hang dry
specification and standard
Specification and Standard
  • Throughout the world there are numerous organizations to develop standard test methods and regulations to control the performance quality of textile.
  • Uniformity of standards are with a growing need.
  • International standards to alleviate some of the problems faced by manufacturers that export or import from foreign manufacturers are necessary.
sources of standards
Sources of Standards



Company Standard

National Standards

International Standards

international standards
International Standards
  • International Used Standards:
  • The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • British Standards (BS)
  • American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC)
  • Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)
  • European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

What are the specifications for Swimwear?

Are there any difference between swimwear and other knitted and woven fabrics?

What make the difference?

fabric with stretch
Fabric with Stretch
  • Most fabrics used for swimwear are elastic
  • By insertion of Spandex/ Lycra etc.
  • All elastic yarns are covered with a layers of fibres/ filaments
  • Two ways of covering: air-jet and wrapping
fabric analysis
Fabric Analysis
  • Standard Conditions:
  • Pre-conditioned:
  • Stored the specimen in chamber with
  • Temperature < 50°C
  • Relative humidity: 10 to 25 %
  • Conditioned:
  • BS: 20±2°C and RH% 65±2%
  • ASTM: 21±1°C and RH% 65±2%
  • What types of tests are required to carry out in controlled condition?
fabric analysis22
Fabric Analysis
  • Standard Conditions:
  • Pre-conditioned:
  • Conditioned:
  • BS: 20±2°C and RH% 65±2%
  • ASTM: 21±1°C and RH% 65±2%
  • What types of tests are required to carry out in controlled condition?
tensile strength
Tensile Strength
  • For fabric with stretch < 11%
  • To obtain the breaking load and elongation at break of a textile fabric
  • Grab test: 1-inch grab (ASTM D 5034, JIS L 1096, ISO 13934-2:99)
  • Strip test: 2-inch strip test (ASTM D5035, JIS L 1096, ISO 13934-1)


200 mm

3 inches

Grab Test Strip Test


tensile strength24
Tensile Strength

Load and Elongation Curve

tearing strength
Tearing Strength
  • Tearing strength refers to the force required to break a group of yarns (max. up to 3 pieces) together by tearing off the fabric.
  • There are various types of tearing depends on application.
tearing strength26
Tearing Strength
  • Elmendorf
  • Only for warp-direction of warp knit and woven
    • ASTM D1424-96
    • JIS L 1096
  • Tongue Tear
    • Single rip
    • ASTM D 2261-96
    • JIS L 1096
elmendorf tearing strength
Elmendorf Tearing Strength
  • Criteria:
  • The tearing strength must be within 80% of the centre capacity.
  • What happen if the tearing load is at the 95% of the max loading?

Release the weight to tear off the fabric

bursting strength most common for knitted fabrics
Bursting Strength (most common for knitted fabrics)
  • Bursting is radial or multi-directional breaking strength.
  • There are two types of bursting strength: ball bursting and hydraulic bursting.
  • Multi-directional force from a steel ball is push up the fabric held in flat until rupture.
  • Multi-directional force from pressure of an inflated diaphragm is applied on fabric until rupture.
bursting strength30
Bursting Strength
  • Diaphragm bursting
  • For knitted swimwear or woven swimwear with stretch > 20%
  • ISO 13938-1:99/BS 4768, ASTM D 3786-87
  • Ballistic ball bursting
  • For high strength fabric or high stretch fabric
  • ASTM D 3787-80
bursting strength31
Bursting Strength
  • Radial extension
  • Hydraulic diaphragm bursting
  • Bursting pressure

= P(f+d) - P(d)

fabric stretch
Fabric Stretch
  • Stretched the fabric in defined load/ length
  • Keep the stretched fabric for defined time
  • Measure the change of L


fabric stretch and growth
Fabric Stretch and Growth

Stretch = (L2 – L1) x 100% L1

L2: extended length under load

L1: original length



fabric stretch and growth34
Fabric Stretch and Growth

Growth = (L3 – L1) x 100% L1

L3: extended length after released

L1: original length



dimensional stability
Dimensional Stability
  • Maintenance of the shape and dimensions of a textile product can be a significant factor in its acceptance by consumers.
  • Terminology:
  • “Refurbishing” is used to describe any of a number of process that textiles may undergo to remove soil and stains and to restore the appearance of the items.
  • Two most common refurbishing methods are “laundering” and “dry-cleaning”.
dimensional stability37
Dimensional Stability
  • Refurbishing
  • A) Laundering
    • It is based on the use of water as a solvent
    • Water is effective in dissolving water-based spots and stains
    • Detergents are laundering aids used to enhance cleaning
  • B) Dry-cleaning
    • It requires the use of organic solvents to dissolve oily soils and stains, such as body oils, waxes, fats and makeup
    • Because only a minimal amount of water is used, fibres do not swell significantly and therefore, do not shrink as much.
dimensional stability38
Dimensional Stability
  • Dimensional stability refers to a fabric’s ability to resist a change in its dimensions.
  • A fabric or garment may exhibit shrinkage or growth under conditions of refurbishing.
  • Items are especially affected by the moisture and heat used in washing, tumble drying, and in steaming and pressing.
  • There are various ways that need to shrinkage occur when textiles are subjected to heat and/or moisture.
what are the causes of dimensional instability
What are the causes of Dimensional Instability?
  • Relaxation Shrinkage:
    • Results of relaxation of stress of fabric
  • Progressive Shrinkage
    • Dimensional change that continues through successive washing
  • Growth
    • Shrinks in length results grow in width
  • Yarn Reduction/ Thermal shrinkage
    • It occurs in thermoplastic fibres.
    • Upon imposition of heat, fabrics/polymer molecules move more randomly, nonlinear form and thus decrease the length
relaxation shrinkage
Relaxation Shrinkage
  • Dry state: Yarns are stretched and temporarily set.
  • Release of strains
  • Energy released
  • Irreversible
  • Need several washings to min & stable energy level.
causes of stretching woven
Causes of stretching (Woven)
  • Warping
  • Weaving
  • Wet-finishing, dyeing printing etc.
causes of extension knitted
Causes of Extension (Knitted)
  • Take-down tension of the knitting m/c
  • Sewing or spreading of the knitted goods
fibre level progressive
Fibre Level: Progressive

Progressive Shrinkage

  • Fibre Swelling
  • Fibre movement within the textile structure

What causes progressive

shrinkage more serious?

  • Alkaline medium
  • Higher temperature
  • Greater freedom of movement.
how does fibre swelling would lead to fabric shrinkage
How does fibre swelling would lead to fabric shrinkage?
  • Fibre swelling Yarn swelling
  • Balance of force
  • If so, how to solve the problem of shrinkage due to fibre swelling?
contraction of yarn
Contraction of Yarn
  • Decrease in length of yarn
  • Normally by heat/ high temperature
  • Synthetic filament is most sensitive
  • How to reduce the shrinkage situation?
dimensional stability46
Dimensional Stability

Shrinkage Measurement

  • BS 5807/ BS 4923
  • AATCC 135 (fabric)
  • AATCC 61 (garment)
  • Report on 1st and last washes
  • Benchmarks the length of 50cm or 25cm apart for both warp and weft directions
  • Measure the dimension of products after treatment

Shrinkage % = Original - after wash x 100%

Original length

Growth is positive

Shrinkage is negative

dimensional instability results interpretation
Dimensional Instability Results Interpretation
  • For apparel products, the required maximum shrinkage or growth usually are dependent on types of products.
  • For woven fabrics: usually maximum shrinkage after laundering is 2.0 to 3.0%
  • For knitted fabrics: allowance for shrinkage is higher, usually 5.0%
  • For stretch fabric: allowance for shrinkage will be higher.

AATCC Definition of Colorfastness

  • Resistance of a material to any change in any of its color characteristics,
  • Transfer of its colorants to adjacent, or both
  • after exposure to any environment
color loss during daily uses





Color leaves the surface of fabric due to abrasion. (Detaches)

Migration of color from wet fabric into water and then to others.

Lightening of color due to loss or breakdown of dye.

The change of color base to a very yellow version of a color.

Transfer of a color to another surface through rubbing

Color Loss during daily uses
evaluation of color change staining visual assessment
Evaluation of Color change/ Staining (Visual Assessment)
  • Gray Scale for Color Change
  • Gray Scale for Staining
  • Chromatic Scale
  • Blue Wool Standard (Light Fastness)
gray scale for color change
Gray Scale for Color Change
  • Nine steps of color difference by stationary pairs of gray chips
  • Half step rating
  • 5 indicates no difference (two gray chips with same color)
  • 1 indicates extreme difference
  • Neutral gray = 12 ±1%
evaluation report

Original fabric colour

Fabric colour after colourfastness perspiration test

Evaluation & Report
  • Grey Scale for Assessing Variation of Colour
gray scale for staining
Gray Scale for Staining
  • Nine pairs of white and gray color chips.
  • Half step rating
  • 5 indicates no difference (2 white chips)
  • 1 indicates extreme difference
  • Rating is based on the color difference of the gradually increase darkness gray chip and the white chip
evaluation report58

Original colour of multifiber test fabric

Multifiber test fabric colour after colourfastness perspiration test

Evaluation & Report

2) Grey Scale for Assessing Colour Staining

multi fibre fabric
Multi-fibre Fabric

Warp: Filament Dacron 55

Weft: multi-fibre fabric

  • Acetate
  • Cotton
  • Nylon
  • Polyester
  • Acrylic
  • Wool
evaluation report60
Evaluation & Report

2) Grey Scale for Assessing Colour Staining

visual assessment method
Visual Assessment Method
  • Light Sources:
    • Daylight D-65 (North Sky light)
    • White fluorescent/ UV
  • Viewing angle:
    • Specimen is 45° from horizontal
    • Viewing perpendicular to the specimen
color fastness to laundering
Color fastness to Laundering
  • Sewn the specimen to a white cotton fabric/ multi-fibre fabric
  • Wash using the LaunderOmeter
  • Assessment:
    • Color change (Grey scale for color change)
    • Staining (Grey scale for staining)
color fastness to crocking
Color Fastness to Crocking
  • Rub the fabric with a white cotton fabric
  • 10 cycles in 10 seconds
  • Dry rubbing
  • Wet rubbing
  • Assessment on mainly on staining
colorfastness to perspiration water sea water
Colorfastness to Perspiration/ Water/ Sea Water
  • It is designed to determine the colour fastness of textiles to perspiration, water, sea water.
  • BS 1006, BS EN 20105, ISO 105, AATCC 15


  • Soak test 6 X 6 cm specimen in the perspiration solution for 30 ±2min.

2) Pass specimen through wringer

  • Weight specimen. Should be 2.25 ±.05 times the original dry weight.

4) Place assembled multi-fiber fabric & specimen on a glass plate.

5) Place the plates in the perspiration tester to provide uniform contact between the multi-fiber & fabric sample under a standard load. Then, secure the pressure plate

  • Heat loaded specimen into oven at 38ºC for 6hr
  • Place in conditioned atmosphere overnight (21ºC, 65% RH).
evaluation report69

Original fabric colour

Fabric colour after colourfastness perspiration test

Evaluation & Report
  • Grey Scale for Assessing Variation of Colour
evaluation report70

Original colour of multifiber test fabric

Multifiber test fabric colour after colourfastness perspiration test

Evaluation & Report

2) Grey Scale for Assessing Colour Staining

evaluation report71
Evaluation & Report

2) Grey Scale for Assessing Colour Staining

color fastness to light
Color fastness to Light
  • Using the Blue Wool standard for assessment
  • By grade
  • ISO 105 B02
  • BS 1006 D01
  • By fading unit
  • AATCC 16E
assessment for light fastness
Assessment for Light Fastness
  • Measurement of Colorfastness to light for AATCC standard is measured the fading units.
  • Specimen = grayscale G4, ? Step of bluewool it is?











assessment for light fastness74
Assessment for Light Fastness
  • Before exposure to the Xenon light source, the light source is required to be checked by the Blue Wool Standard
  • Standard hours, specimen = Grayscale ? Step

10 to 40 hours


flammability standards for normal wearing apparel
Flammability standards for normal wearing apparel


  • Class 1: Normal flammability (suitable for clothing).
    • Flame spread is 3.5 seconds or more for non-raised fibre fabrics
    • Flame spread is 7.0 seconds or more for raised fibre fabrics.
  • Class 2: Intermediate flammability.
    • Flame spread is from 4 to 7 seconds and the base fabric ignites or fuses.
  • Class 3: Rapid and intense burning (unsuitable for clothing).
    • Flame spread is 3.5 seconds or less for non-raised fibre fabrics
    • Flame spread is less than 4.0 seconds for raised fibre fabrics.
flammability test 45
Flammability Test (45°)
  • Time required for the flame to proceed up to a distance of 5 in (127 mm) is recorded.
  • The automatic timer can be stopped by breaking the stop cord at 5 inches length from the starting position.

Cotton string


Fire source




Product Evaluation