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Judaism. “For thou art a holy people unto the L ORD thy God, and the L ORD hath chosen thee to be His own treasure out of all peoples that are upon the face of the earth.” Deuteronomy 14:2. Monotheistic One God, Yahweh

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judaism

Judaism

  • “For thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God, and the LORD hath chosen thee to be His own treasure out of all peoples that are upon the face of the earth.”

Deuteronomy 14:2

the hebrew god

Monotheistic

  • One God, Yahweh
    • “But let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth, and knoweth Me, that I am the LORDwho exercise mercy, justice, and righteousness, in the earth.”

Jeremiah 9:23

The Hebrew God
basic beliefs

Summarized into “Thirteen Principles of Faith”

  • 1-4: One God exists; He is unified, incorporeal, and eternal
  • 5: Only worship God
  • 6: Words of all the prophets are true
  • 7-8: Moses is chief prophet; he was given the Torah
  • 9: Only one, unchanging Torah
  • 10-11: God is omniscient, uses knowledge to reward and punish
  • 12-13: Messiah will come, resurrection of dead
Basic Beliefs
practices

Dietary restrictions

    • No pork or shellfish
  • Ritual baths to achieve spiritual purity
  • Refrain from work and fighting on the Sabbath
Practices
rituals holidays

Shabbat (Sabbath)

    • Weekly observance- day of rest
    • Friday night to Saturday night
  • Yom Kippur(“Day of Atonement”)
    • Atone for sins of the past year
    • Fasting and prayer
  • Rosh Hashanah (“first of the year”)
    • Jewish New Year celebration
  • Pesach (Passover)
    • Signifies Exodus from Egypt
Rituals & Holidays
role of women

Considered just as important as men, if separate

  • Revered with honor
  • Seen as very smart and understanding
  • Discouraged from pursuing higher education, but…
    • Only due to fear it would prevent them from performing duties as mother and wife
Role of Women
major texts books

Major text is Torah

    • First 5 books of Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
    • Also called books of Moses
    • Talmud, or “oral Torah”-interpretation of Torah and other writings
    • "That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn."

- Hillel the Elder 

Major Texts & Books
missionary work until 600 c e

No missionary programs

    • Isolated from other people by strict practices
Missionary Work until 600 C.E.
origin diffusion until 600 c e

Founded by Abraham

  • Exodus
  • Started in area between Jordan River and Mediterranean, called Canaan
  • David/Solomon kingdom
  • Assyrian empire takes over Israel
  • Diaspora
Origin & Diffusion until 600 C.E.
contacts with other religions until 600 c e

Primarily with Christianity

  • Christianity developed when Israel was oppressed by Roman rule, people sought Messiah
  • Christians believe in Jesus as Messiah; Jews do not
    • Jewish authorities viewed reformist Jesus as threat, turned over to Roman governor
    • Paul tried to convert Jews, many shocked by radical ideas
Contacts with Other Religions until 600 C.E.
similarities differences to other religions

Like Christianity and Zoroastrianism: monotheistic, good vs. evil, sin

  • Shares Old Testament/Hebrew Bible with Christianity, both arose in Israel, but Christians have New Testament and believe that Jesus was Messiah (Jews believe Messiah has yet to come)
  • Like Buddhism and Daoism: women were equals
  • Unlike Theravada Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism: concerned with God and deity aspects of religion; not primarily a philosophy
Similarities & Differences to Other Religions
sources

Bulliet, Richard, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Richard Hirsch, Lyman Johnson, and David Northup. The Earth and Its Peoples. 5th ed. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning, 2011. 84-90, 156. Print.

"Deuteronomy Chapter 14." Hebrew-English Bible. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sep 2013. <http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0514.htm>.

"Hillel and the Golden Rule." Jewish Virtual Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sep 2013. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Quote/hillel.html>.

Jacobs, Louis. "Judaism." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. 2nd ed. Vol. 11. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 511-520. World History In Context. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

"Jeremiah Chapter 9." Hebrew-English Bible. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt1109.htm>.

Rich, Tracey. Judaism 101. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sep 2013. <http://www.jewfaq.org/index.shtml>.

Sources