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Computer Networks. Lecture 4 Transport Layer April, 2009. Our goals: understand principles behind transport layer services: multiplexing/demultiplexing reliable data transfer flow control congestion control. learn about transport layer protocols in the Internet:

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    1. Computer Networks Lecture 4 Transport Layer April, 2009

    2. Our goals: understand principles behind transport layer services: multiplexing/demultiplexing reliable data transfer flow control congestion control learn about transport layer protocols in the Internet: UDP: connectionless transport TCP: connection-oriented transport TCP congestion control Lecture 4: Transport Layer

    3. Sender: treat segment contents as sequence of 16-bit integers checksum: addition (1’s complement sum) of segment contents sender puts checksum value into UDP checksum field Receiver: compute checksum of received segment check if computed checksum equals checksum field value: NO - error detected YES - no error detected. But maybe errors nonetheless? More later …. UDP checksum Goal: detect “errors” (e.g., flipped bits) in transmitted segment

    4. Example of checksum (1) Segments 0110011001100110 0101010101010101 += 1011101110111011 0100010001000100 1’s complement (check sum) Length: in bytes (8 bits), including header or not ? Checksum: every two bytes (16 bits) 2 words of 16-bit sum

    5. Example of checksum (2) • Note • When adding numbers, a carryout from the most significant bit needs to be added to the result • Example: add two 16-bit integers 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 Wrap around sum checksum An interesting question to think about: How many UDP packets in the Internet will be received without detecting errors?

    6. Principles of reliable data transfer Connection-oriented transport: TCP segment structure reliable data transfer flow control connection management Principles of congestion control TCP congestion control Outline

    7. important in app., transport, link layers top-10 list of important networking topics! characteristics of unreliable channel will determine complexity of reliable data transfer protocol (rdt) Principles of Reliable data transfer

    8. Packets maybe lost, arrive out of order, be duplicated, be received but corrupted Receiver may not be able to handle the speed Networks may be congested … Reliable transport protocol has to handle all (or many of) these problems We will try to design a reliable transport protocol (RTP) with increasing complex and realistic assumptions Problems at the Network Layer

    9. rdt_send():called from above, (e.g., by app.). Passed data to deliver to receiver upper layer deliver_data():called by rdt to deliver data to upper udt_send():called by rdt, to transfer packet over unreliable channel to receiver rdt_rcv():called when packet arrives on rcv-side of channel Reliable data transfer: getting started sending side receiving side udt: unreliable data transfer protocol

    10. We’ll: incrementally develop sender, receiver sides of reliable data transfer protocol (rdt) What result in unreliability ? Reliable data transfer: getting started • Bit error • Packet loss – congestion • Delay – too long

    11. We’ll: incrementally develop sender, receiver sides of reliable data transfer protocol (rdt) consider only unidirectional data transfer but control info will flow on both directions! use finite state machines (FSM) to specify sender, receiver event state 1 state 2 actions Reliable data transfer: getting started event causing state transition actions taken on state transition state: when in this “state” next state uniquely determined by next event

    12. underlying channel perfectly reliable no bit errors no loss of packets no out-of-order nor duplicated packets receiver’s buffer does not get overflowed separate FSMs for sender, receiver: sender sends data into underlying channel receiver read data from underlying channel Rdt1.0: reliable transfer over a reliable channel rdt_send(data) rdt_rcv(packet) Wait for call from below Wait for call from above packet = make_pkt(data) udt_send(packet) extract (packet,data) deliver_data(data) receiver sender

    13. underlying channel may flip bits in packet recall: UDP checksum to detect bit errors Q1: how to detect errors? Q2: how to recover from errors? acknowledgements (ACKs): receiver explicitly tells sender that pkt received OK negative acknowledgements (NAKs): receiver explicitly tells sender that pkt had errors sender retransmits pkt on receipt of NAK human scenarios (allo…) using ACKs, NAKs? protocols that use ACK/NAK & retransmission are called ARQ (Automatic Repeat ReQuest) protocol What else? new mechanisms in rdt2.0 (beyond rdt1.0): error detection receiver feedback: control msgs (ACK,NAK) rcvr->sender Rdt2.0: channel with bit errors

    14. Wait for ACK or NAK Wait for call from below rdt2.0: FSM specification rdt_send(data) snkpkt = make_pkt(data, checksum) udt_send(sndpkt) receiver rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && isNAK(rcvpkt) Wait for call from above rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && corrupt(rcvpkt) udt_send(sndpkt) udt_send(NAK) rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && isACK(rcvpkt) L sender rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && notcorrupt(rcvpkt) extract(rcvpkt,data) deliver_data(data) udt_send(ACK)

    15. Wait for ACK or NAK rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && corrupt(rcvpkt) stop and wait udt_send(NAK) rdt2.0: operation with no errors rdt_send(data) snkpkt = make_pkt(data, checksum) udt_send(sndpkt) rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && isNAK(rcvpkt) Wait for call from above udt_send(sndpkt) rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && isACK(rcvpkt) Wait for call from below L rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && notcorrupt(rcvpkt) • Sender sends one packet, • then waits for receiver to respond • Upper layer cannot deliver data while current layer is waiting for ACK/NAK extract(rcvpkt,data) deliver_data(data) udt_send(ACK)

    16. Wait for ACK or NAK rdt2.0: error scenario rdt_send(data) snkpkt = make_pkt(data, checksum) udt_send(sndpkt) rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && isNAK(rcvpkt) Wait for call from above rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && corrupt(rcvpkt) udt_send(sndpkt) udt_send(NAK) rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && isACK(rcvpkt) Wait for call from below L rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && notcorrupt(rcvpkt) extract(rcvpkt,data) deliver_data(data) udt_send(ACK)

    17. What happens if ACK/NAK corrupted? sender doesn’t know what happened at receiver! What to do? sender NAKs receiver’s ACK/NAK? What if sender NAK corrupted? retransmit, assuming it is NAK … but this might cause retransmission of correctly received pkt! - packet duplications ! Handling duplicates: sender adds sequence number to each pkt sender retransmits current pkt if ACK/NAK garbled receiver discards (doesn’t deliver up) duplicate pkt rdt2.0 has a fatal flaw!

    18. Sender: seq # added to pkt 2 seq #’s (0,1) will suffice. Why? Must check if received ACK/NAK corrupted twice as many states state must “remember” whether “current” pkt has 0 or 1 seq. # Receiver: must check if received packet is duplicate state indicates whether 0 or 1 is expected pkt seq # rdt2.1: discussion

    19. rdt 2.1 in action

    20. rdt 2.1 in action (cont)

    21. same functionality as rdt2.1, using ACKs only receiver sends ACK for last pkt received OK receiver must explicitly include seq # of pkt being ACKed duplicate ACK at sender results in same action as NAK: retransmit current pkt rdt2.2: a NAK-free protocol

    22. rdt 2.2 in action

    23. rdt 2.2 in action (cont)

    24. Q: Why ACK only ? A: 1. Uniform (simple) format for ACK 2. For the following protocols … rdt2.2: a NAK-free protocol

    25. New assumption:underlying channel can also lose packets (data or ACKs) Q: what happens with loss ? how to deal with loss? checksum, seq. #, ACKs, retransmissions will be of help, but not enough Approach: sender waits “reasonable” amount of time for ACK (timeout) retransmits if no ACK received in this time if pkt (or ACK) just delayed (not lost): retransmission will be duplicate, but use of seq. #’s already handles this receiver must specify seq # of pkt being ACKed requires countdown timer rdt3.0: channels with errors and loss

    26. rdt3.0 in action

    27. rdt3.0 in action

    28. stop and wait rdt3.0: Poor performance sender receiver first packet bit transmitted, t = 0 last packet bit transmitted, t = L / R first packet bit arrives RTT last packet bit arrives, send ACK ACK arrives, send next packet, t = RTT + L / R Stop-and-Wait Sender sends one packet, then waits for receiver response

    29. example: 1 Gbps link, 15 ms e-e prop. delay, 1KB packet: Performance of rdt3.0 L (packet length in bits) 8kb/pkt T = = = 8 microsec transmit R (transmission rate, bps) 109 b/sec • U sender: utilization – fraction of time sender busy sending • 1KB pkt every 30 msec -> 33kB/sec thruput over 1 Gbps link • network protocol limits use of physical resources!

    30. Pipelining: sender allows multiple, “in-flight”, yet-to-be-acknowledged pkts range of sequence numbers must be increased buffering at sender and/or receiver Pipelined protocols

    31. Pipelining: increased utilization sender receiver first packet bit transmitted, t = 0 last bit transmitted, t = L / R first packet bit arrives RTT last packet bit arrives, send ACK last bit of 2nd packet arrives, send ACK last bit of 3rd packet arrives, send ACK ACK arrives, send next packet, t = RTT + L / R Increase utilization by a factor of 3 • Two generic forms of pipelined protocols: go-Back-N, selective repeat

    32. Sender: k-bit seq # in pkt header “window” of up to N, consecutive unack’ed pkts allowed – sliding window Go-Back-N (GBN) • ACK(n): ACKs all pkts up to, including seq # n - “cumulative ACK” • may receive duplicate ACKs (see receiver) • timer for the packet of send_base • timeout(n): retransmit pkt n and all higher seq # pkts in window

    33. ACK-only: always send ACK for correctly-received pkt with highest in-order seq # may generate duplicate ACKs need only remember expected seqnum out-of-order pkt: discard (don’t buffer) -> no receiver buffering! Re-ACK pkt with highest in-order seq # GBN

    34. GBN inaction

    35. GBN inactionCumulative ACK

    36. GBN inactionCumulative ACK

    37. GBN inactionPremature timeout

    38. GBN inactionPremature timeout

    39. receiver individually acknowledges all correctly received pkts buffers pkts, as needed, for eventual in-order delivery to upper layer sender only resends pkts for which ACK not received sender timer for each unACKed pkt sender window N consecutive seq #’s again limits seq #s of sent, unACKed pkts Selective Repeat

    40. Selective repeat: sender, receiver windows

    41. data from above : if next available seq # in window, send pkt timeout(n): resend pkt n, restart timer ACK(n) in [sendbase,sendbase+N]: mark pkt n as received if n smallest unACKed pkt, advance window base to next unACKed seq # receiver sender Selective repeat pkt n in[rcvbase, rcvbase+N-1] • send ACK(n) • out-of-order: buffer • in-order: deliver (also deliver buffered, in-order pkts), advance window to next not-yet-received pkt pkt n in[rcvbase-N,rcvbase-1] • ACK(n) otherwise: • ignore

    42. Selective repeat in action

    43. Example: seq #’s: 0, 1, 2, 3 window size=3 receiver sees no difference in two scenarios! incorrectly passes duplicate data as new in (a) Q: what relationship between seq # size and window size? Will this happen in GBN ? Selective repeat:dilemma

    44. Channel bit errors require Error detecting codes Receiver feedback (ACK/NAK) Retransmission (when NAK received or ACK/NAK corrupted) Retransmissions introduce duplicates Need seq # Packet loss requires Timeout + retransmission (again introduce duplicates) Estimating the “right” timeout is a fundamental problem! Pipelining improves utilization + throughput Need to enlarge seq # space Need more buffer space at both sender & receiver ACK + retransmission strategies: Go-Back-N & Selective Repeat Summary

    45. Problem 10, 20, 21, 27, 31, 35, 38, Chapter 3, pp. 288-294 of text book Any submission problems, submit directly to hoang.dhbk@gmail.com with subject: Assignment 2– your class – your name Due date: 9:15am, dd/mm/2009 Note: Late submission will NOT be accepted! Assignment 2

    46. full duplex data: bi-directional data flow in same connection connection-oriented: handshaking (exchange of control msgs) init’s sender, receiver state before data exchange flow controlled: sender will not overwhelm receiver End-to-end, unicast: one sender, one receiver reliable, in-order byte stream: no “message boundaries” Pipelined (not stop-wait): TCP congestion and flow control set window size send & receive buffers TCP: Overview RFCs: 793, 1122, 1323, 2018, 2581

    47. 32 bits source port # dest port # sequence number acknowledgement number head len not used Receive window U A P R S F checksum Urg data pnter Options (variable length) application data (variable length) TCP segment structure URG: urgent data (generally not used) counting by bytes of data (not segments!) ACK: ACK # valid PSH: push data now (generally not used) # bytes rcvr willing to accept (flow control) RST, SYN, FIN: connection estab (setup, teardown commands) Internet checksum (as in UDP)

    48. 32 bits source port # dest port # sequence number acknowledgement number head len not used Receive window U A P R S F checksum Urg data pnter Options (variable length) application data (variable length) TCP segment structure How many bytes of the header (with no options)? 20 bytes What about UDP header?

    49. UDP segment structure 32 bits source port # dest port # TCP header: 20 bytes checksum length UDP header: 8 bytes Application data (message) UDP segment format

    50. TCP Segmentation: MSS • Maximum segment size (MSS) – 1500, 536, 512 bytes, … • MSS = 1000