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The Essential Feature of Individual Supports: Systems, Systems, Systems. Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Barbara Mitchell Columbia Public Schools. This morning…. Brief overview of key features of individual PBS assessment and plan development

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the essential feature of individual supports systems systems systems

The Essential Feature of Individual Supports: Systems, Systems, Systems

Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

University of Missouri

Barbara Mitchell

Columbia Public Schools

this morning
This morning…
  • Brief overview of key features of individual PBS assessment and plan development
  • Necessity of changing learning environments = need for system support
  • One middle school example
big ideas
Big Ideas

Understand interaction between behavior and the teaching environment

Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment

Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors

Create environments to support the use of pro-social behaviors (practice, practice, practice)

Around individual student need / self-management

Classroom

School-wide

basic steps in fba bip process
Basic Steps in FBA-BIP Process

Conduct functional behavioral assessment

Create plan based on functional assessment outcome

Develop infra-structure to support behavior change (system change)

positive behavior support plan
Positive Behavior Support Plan
  • Teach replacement behavior(s) that result in same/similar outcome
  • Environment should not allow problem behavior to result in previous outcomes
  • Ideally replacement behavior should be more efficient than problem behavior
fba pbs plan process
FBA – PBS Plan Process

Success requires:

  • Individual(s) with expertise in FBA-PBS
  • Fluency with a clear process among all staff whereby roles are clearly defined
  • A basic understanding of Applied Behavior Analysis (Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment) among all school staff
essential steps to individual pbs plans
Essential Steps to Individual PBS Plans
  • Request for assistance
  • Operationally define problem/replacement behavior
  • Background/archival data/ data collection/Environmental Assessment
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment
    • Indirect measures
    • Direct observation
  • Develop hypothesis regarding function of problem behavior
  • Develop a PBS plan
    • Social skill instruction
    • Self management
    • Environmental modifications
  • Implement, Monitor and Evaluate progress
how do schools get there
How do schools get there?

Build parallel systemic processes

  • Provide school/district teams with a process to address the presenting challenge
  • Develop a parallel process for districts/states to support school implementation and continue to expand with integrity
slide9

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behavior

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior

research findings on scaling up fixsen naoom blase friedman wallace 2005 p 70
Research Findings on “Scaling Up”(Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 70)
  • Best evidence documents what doesn’t work:
    • Information dissemination alone
    • Training by itself
research findings on scaling up fixsen naoom blase friedman wallace 2005 p 7011
Research Findings on “Scaling Up”(Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 70)
  • What works
    • Long term, multi-level approaches
    • Skills-based training
    • Practice-based coaching
    • Practioner performance-feedback
    • Program evaluation
    • Facilitative administrative practices
    • Methods for systems intervention
applied work in progress

Applied Work in Progress

Gentry Middle School

background and context
Background and Context
  • PBS in Columbia Public Schools
    • 18 elementary buildings
    • 3 middle schools
    • 3 junior highs
    • 3 high school programs
    • 17,000 students
gentry middle school
Gentry Middle School
  • Three core teams per grade level
    • Five general education teachers
    • One special education /One paraprofessional
  • Elective team
  • Literacy support center
  • Self-contained/Special education
  • Administrative team
pbs at gentry year 1 2
PBS at Gentry Year 1-2
  • Universal Features
    • Administrative and faculty buy in
    • Building wide expectations (RRKS)
    • PBS team
    • Matrix
pbs at gentry year 3 4
PBS at GentryYear 3-4
  • Universal Features
    • Lesson plans
    • Redesign office referral
    • Track discipline data
    • System for acknowledging (RRKS Ribbon)
    • Team process revisited
pbs at gentry year 5 6
PBS at GentryYear 5-6
  • Universal Features
    • Revisit matrix
    • Lesson plans and teaching schedule
    • Behavioral expectations posted
    • RRKS Ribbon data collection
    • Assign sub-committee work
the saga begins
The Saga Begins
  • Student Assistance Team (SAT)
    • Administrator
    • School psychologist
    • Counselors
    • Team teacher
    • Behavior specialist
  • Goal = Individual supports
painful lessons
Painful Lessons…
  • Year 1: Floundering, Flailing and Failing
    • Inadequate universal supports
    • Targeted interventions not systematic or data-based
    • Individual plans overwhelming and ineffective
initial outcomes
Initial Outcomes
  • Multiple changes in individual plans
  • Ineffective supports for teachers and students
  • Loss of time
  • Increased number of referrals
  • Diminished credibility
the saga continues
The Saga Continues
  • Year 2: Reinforcements Arrive
    • Outside expertise
    • Administrative supports
      • Money
      • Meetings
      • Melee
building systems
Building Systems
  • How to get there
    • Clarify process for accessing support
    • Reorganize process for disseminating effective practice
    • Provide training, tools and support
slide27

Process for Disseminating Practice

SAT Process

Teacher Training and Support

Targeted Interventions

Individual Student Plans

SAT Team

Administrator

Counselor

Behavior Specialist

STAT Team

Core Team/Classrooms

Implement AIS

Monitor Progress

Refer to SAT

Core Team Representative

SAT Partner

Core Team Teachers

*Meets Weekly

RRKS Team

School-Wide Systems

Matrix

Lesson Plans

School-Wide Data

Acknowledgement

Communication

Core Team Representative

District PBS Support

Building Administrator and Counselors

*Meets Monthly

provide skills based training
Provide Skills-Based Training
  • Training Model
    • SAT members with behavior specialist
      • Behavior basics and management
      • SAT process
      • Function-linked strategies
    • SAT members with STAT team representative
    • SAT and STAT with core team teachers
provide tools
Provide Tools
  • Tools for Teachers
    • SAT flowchart
    • Pyramid to Success
    • RRKS TOC
    • AIS guide (Alternative Intervention Strategies)
slide30

Pyramid to Success for All

  • Office Issues
  • Bus referrals, Truancy, Chronic offender, Threatening student or adult, Fighting, Refusal to go to or Disruptive in Buddy Room, Sexual harassment, Weapons, Drug/cigarettes/ tobacco/alcohol, Assault – physical or verbal
  • Teacher Method for handling student behaviors
    • Referral Form – send student to office with completed form
  • Process with student before re-entry
  • Office Method for handling student behaviors
  • Proactive: RRKS Review, Parent Contact
  • Corrective: Loss of Privilege, Saturday detention, Opportunity Center, Suspension, etc.

Team Issues

Repeated minor & major disruptions in multiple classrooms, Throwing things, Hallway/Lockers problems, Attendance, Repeated disrespect to peers or adults, Cheating, Inappropriate to substitute, Insubordination, Chronic Disruptions

Method for handling student behaviors

Proactive: Parent contact (mandatory), RRKS review, Team conference, Team conference with student, Team conference with Parents, Team conference with Administrator/Counselor, Triage in the AM with the student, Triage at lunch with the student, Team Focus, etc.

Corrective:Removal of privilege on team, Recovery Study Hall, Buddy Room, etc.

Classroom Teacher Issues

Out of seat, Talking to classmates, Talking out, Off-task, Violation of class rules, Inappropriate language, Lack of materials, Gum, Disrespect, Cheating, Tardies, Minor destruction of property

Method for handling student behaviors

Proactive: Positive call to parents, Use praise, Use Rewards, Daily/Weekly Goal sheets, Proximity to instructor, Provide choices, One-to-One assistance, Pre-correct for transitions/trouble situations, Regular breaks for exercise, Give a job, RRKS Review, Reward lunch with teacher, etc.

Corrective: One and only one REDIRECT, RRKS Review, Safe-seat, Buddy Room, Think Sheet, Parent Phone call, Lunch Detention, Recovery Study Hall, Removal of privilege in classroom, etc.

rrks toc front side
RRKS TOC (front side)

RRKS – Time Out of ClassCode: _____

Student: _________________________ Date:______________________

Incident Time: ____________________# of min. out of rm.: __________

Teacher: _______________________Subject: ____________________

What did you do/not do that got you sent out of class? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Circle the RRKS expectation that was not followed:

Respect Responsible Kind Safe

What will you do differently next time?______________________________________

rrks toc back side
RRKS TOC (back side)
  • Processing Checklist:
  • Processing data & time:
  • Review with the student reason he/she was sent out.
  • Teach & practice replacement behavior.
  • Provide positive reinforcement for replacement behavior.
  • Check the setting in which the behavior occurred.

Minor List: Circle the appropriate code

provide ongoing support
Provide Ongoing Support
  • Weekly, skills-based, with feedback
  • Periodic, intensive, with follow-up
  • Example: 2007-08 Sessions
      • Classroom/team universals
      • AIS process
      • Follow-up AIS
      • Peer observations
      • Feedback and systems maintenance
a happy ending
A Happy Ending…
  • Outcomes to Date
    • Increased implementation of universals
    • Paradigm shift
    • Building infra-structure to sustain individual supports
how do schools get there35
How do schools get there?

Build parallel systemic processes

Provide school/district teams with a process to address the presenting challenge

Develop a parallel process for districts/states to support school implementation and continue to expand with integrity

pulling it all together
Pulling It All Together
  • Success in building sustained systems
    • Long-term, multi-level approach
    • Skills-based training
    • Practice-based coaching
    • Practitioner performance-feedback
    • Program evaluation
    • Facilitative administrative practices
    • Methods for systems intervention
big ideas37
Big Ideas
  • Understand interaction between behavior and the teaching environment

Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment

  • Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors
  • Create environments to support the use of pro-social behaviors
    • Around individual student need / self-management
    • Classroom
    • School-wide