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Evidence Based Practice University of Utah . Training School Psychologists to be Experts in Evidence Based Practices for Tertiary Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance/Behavior Disorders US Office of Education 84.325K H325K080308. Intervention in a Flash. Presented By: Karen Brown.

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intervention in a flash

Evidence Based Practice University of Utah

Training School Psychologists to be Experts in Evidence Based Practices for Tertiary Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance/Behavior Disorders

US Office of Education 84.325K

H325K080308

Intervention in a Flash

Presented By: Karen Brown

interventions in a flash what is it who is it for
Interventions in a Flash-What Is It & Who Is It For?
  • A strategy to use with students struggling to acquire or retain a skill such as math facts, reading sight words, or spelling
  • One-on-One Format
  • Can be used as a Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention
rationale and evidenced based practice
Rationale and Evidenced Based Practice
  • Basic, foundational skills must be acquired prior to more complex concepts and higher order thinking skills
  • Students who do not have automaticity in their basic skills struggle to stay “on grade level” and maintain interest
  • Failure to attain these basic skills negatively effects overall academic competency
    • Math: basic skills include operational facts
    • Reading: basic skills include phonemic awareness and sight words
rationale and evidenced based practice cont
Rationale and Evidenced Based Practice cont.
  • Research has shown that instructional interventions must be:
    • Targeted skills
    • Explicitly taught
    • Appropriate level of instruction and challenge
    • High opportunities to respond
    • Immediate feedback given
  • Using flash cards to increase student’s automaticity incorporates the above needs and has been shown effective with
    • Struggling readers to improve sight word fluency
    • Basic math facts
    • General education and Special Education populations
advantage to the educator
Advantage to the Educator
  • Inexpensive to use and can be developed quickly and as feedback is given for student response
  • Keep easy data using the cards developed
  • Limited materials
    • Index or note cards
    • Folder
    • Markers
    • Checklist
  • 3 types to choose from
traditional flash card drill
Traditional Flash Card Drill
  • 100% unknown facts/words
  • Procedure:
    • Set of cards shown to student one at a time with instructor giving correct answer and student repeating fact/word and answer
    • Set of cards shown again with student responding
      • Correct response: acknowledge with positive feedback
      • Incorrect response: overcorrection and immediate feedback
    • Set repetition based on time and student achievement (8 trials typical)
interspersal training drill sandwich
Interspersal Training (Drill Sandwich)
  • Typically 30% unknown to 70% known facts/words
  • Procedure:
    • Unknown facts/words read and answered by instructor with student repetition
    • Intersperse the unknowns with the knowns in an order such as
      • K1-U1-U2-U3-K2-U4-U5-U6-K3
    • Set repetition based on time and student achievement (8 trials typical)
      • Correct response: acknowledge with positive feedback
      • Incorrect response: overcorrection and immediate feedback
incremental rehearsal
Incremental Rehearsal
  • 10% unknown to 90% known
  • Procedure:
    • Unknown fact/word read and answered by instructor with student repetition
    • Rehearse the unknown with the knowns in specific order
    • Repeat set with each targeted fact/word moving 1st unknown to the 1st known position and removing the 9th known
      • Correct response: acknowledge with positive feedback
      • Incorrect response: overcorrection and immediate feedback
procedure for incremental rehearsal
Procedure for Incremental Rehearsal
  • 1st Unknown – 1st Known
  • 1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K
  • 1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K
  • 1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K – 4th K
  • 1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K – 4th K – 5th K
  • 1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K - 4th K – 5th K -6th K
  • 1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K - 4th K – 5th K -6th K– 7th K
  • 1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K - 4th K – 5th K -6th K – 7th K – 8th K
  • 1st Unknown – 1st K– 2nd K– 3rd K- 4th K– 5th K-6th K– 7th K– 8th K– 9th K
  • Move 1st Unknown to 1st Known position – Remove 9th Known – add 2nd Unknown
comparisons
Comparisons
  • Most effective: Incremental rehearsal
    • Spaced repetition may aide in moving fact/word from short-term memory to long-term memory
  • Most efficient: Traditional flash card drill
    • Incremental rehearsal takes more time but does provide more opportunities to respond than traditional or interspersal
  • Teacher preferences: Traditional (time reasons)
  • Student preferences: Traditional
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Tier 2 Intervention: Traditional Flash Card Drill
  • Tier 3 Intervention: Incremental Rehearsal
    • If Tier 2 Traditional Flash Card Drill fails to produce retention of skills, if students need a more complete foundation of basic skills, or if students need more successes to maintain motivation
simple set up scenario 1
Simple Set-Up Scenario #1

math fact intervention for use as a whole class/peer tutoring – Tier 1 or 2

simple set up scenario 11
Simple Set-Up Scenario #1
  • Teacher group-administers a curriculum based measurement fact probe (2 of the same type best, i.e. 2 Multiplication Facts probes)
  • Teacher identifies, with student help grading if desired, known and unknown facts for each student
    • If using 2 probes, facts/words incorrect on both are targets
  • Create flash card set for the traditional drill (10 unknowns) for each student using index cards
  • Train students to act as the “instructor”
simple set up scenario 1 daily plan
Simple Set-Up Scenario #1-Daily Plan

Teacher Prep Needed

Class-wide Protocol – approximate time: 25 min.

  • Make folders for each student
  • Copy & Grade probes if students are not
  • Make flash card sets for students and place them in the folders
  • Get folders and peer “instructors”
  • Review the previous day’s set and pull out the facts that are not maintained (missed)
  • Add unknown facts from folder until the set has 10
  • “Instruct” each other using the flash card set of 10 unknowns
  • Teacher administers a 2 minute fact probe
  • Students switch papers with peer to grade and circle incorrects
  • Students place the newly graded probes and cards back into the folders
overall suggestions troubleshooting
Overall Suggestions-Troubleshooting
  • Quickly make the new unknown flash cards for students when they hand in their folders
  • Color code the flash cards, either paper or ink, as known or unknown
  • Keep a sealable envelope for each student with their “maintained” cards to pull out as re-test items or as proofs of success (i.e. data)
  • If the intervention seems organized and students are progressing at different rates, begin differentiating the probes between students
overall suggestions cont
Overall Suggestions cont.
  • If this whole class format requires too much time…break it up
    • Monday: peer instruct entire set of flash cards
    • Tuesday: review previous day’s set removing the missed facts – give 2 minute probe
    • Wednesday: peer instruct entire set of flashcards using the non-maintained cards from Monday and new unknowns from Tuesday probe
    • Thursday: review Wednesday’s set removing the missed facts – give 2 minute probe
    • Friday: administer to the class the weekly grade level Progress Monitor probe
simple set up scenario 2
Simple Set-Up Scenario #2

Reading fluency intervention for use as a small group – Tier 3

simple set up scenario 21
Simple Set-Up Scenario #2
  • Teacher or aide administers a list of high frequency words (Fry’s, Dolch, etc.) in segments of 10
    • Provide immediate feedback to students
    • Many list of these types of lists on www.literacyconnections.com/content/high-frequency-sight-words
  • Teacher identifies known and unknown words for student
  • Create flash card set for the incremental rehearsal (9 knowns and one unknown at a time) for student using index cards
  • Follow the protocol for the incremental rehearsal format
simple set up scenario 1 daily plan1
Simple Set-Up Scenario #1-Daily Plan

Teacher Prep Needed

Tier 3/1:1 Protocol – approximate time: 15 min.

  • Copy high-frequency word list
  • Create folder for student(s) needing intervention
  • Get folder with high-frequency word list and flash cards
  • Review the previous day’s unknown set and pull out the words that are not maintained (missed)
  • Student reads the high-frequency word list in increments of 10 words until they have a total of 5 unknowns (including non-maintained from previous day)
  • Make new flash cards for those unknown words
  • Incremental Rehearsal protocol
overall suggestions troubleshooting1
Overall Suggestions-Troubleshooting
  • Keep one laminated version of the high-frequency list for student to read off of each time
  • Keep a table with the high-frequency words for instructor use – check off with dates the words missed
  • Color code the flash cards, either paper or ink, as known or unknown
  • Keep a sealable envelope for each student with their “maintained” cards to pull out as re-test items or as proofs of success (i.e. data)
  • Use word lists such as The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists, 5thed with students that struggle reading content related words
references
References
  • Burns, M. (2005). Using Incremental Rehearsal to Increase Fluency of Single-Digit Multiplication Facts with Children Identified as Learning Disabled in Mathematics Computation. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 237-249.
  • Burns, M. (2009). Interspersal Technique and Behavioral Momentum for Reading Word Lists. School Psychology Review, 38, 428-434.
  • Cates, G., Skinner, C., Watson, T., Meadows, T., Weaver, A., & Jackson, B. (2003). Instructional Effectiveness and Instructional Efficiency as Considerations for Data-Based Decision Making: An Evaluation of Interspersing Procedures. School Psychology Review, 32, 601-616.
  • MacQuarrie, L., Tucker, J., Burns, M. & Hartman, B. (2002). Comparison of Retention Rates Using Traditional, Drill Sandwich, and Incremental Rehearsal Flash Card Methods. School Psychology Review, 31, 584-595.
  • Nist, L. & Joseph, L. (2008). Effectiveness and Efficiency of Flashcard Drill Instructional Methods on Urban First-Graders’ Word Recognition, Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization. School Psychology Review, 37, 294-308.
  • Torgenson, J. (2004). Preventing Early Reading Failure. American Educator, 28.
slide22

Class-wide Math Fact Intervention Procedure

_________Get folders and partner

_________Review Partner 1’s flash card set from yesterday and keep the incorrects in a pile

_________Review Partner 2’s flash card set from yesterday and keep the incorrects in a pile

_________Use Partner 1’s incorrects from the review and add new unknowns until their set equals 10 total

_________”Instruct” Partner 1 through their set of flash cards making sure they say the fact, then the answer and giving them immediate feedback if they are incorrect.

_________Use Partner 2’s incorrects from the review and add new unknowns until their set equals 10 total

_________”Instruct” Partner 2 through their set of flash cards making sure they say the fact, then the answer and giving them immediate feedback if they are incorrect.

_________Repeat flash card set as many times as possible before the teacher stops you

slide23

1:1 Reading Fluency Intervention

_________Get folder

_________Review flash card set from yesterday and keep the incorrects in a pile

_________Mark student’s incorrect words read aloud from the high-frequency list (student starts at the beginning of the list each day) – reading sets of 10 words at a time

_________Make flash cards for the new unknown words

_________Use incorrects, starting with yesterday’s, as U in the incremental rehearsal procedure (5 total)

1st Unknown – 1st Known

1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K

1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K

1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K – 4th K

1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K – 4th K – 5th K

1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K - 4th K – 5th K -6th K

1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K - 4th K – 5th K -6th K– 7th K

1st Unknown – 1st K – 2nd K – 3rd K - 4th K – 5th K -6th K – 7th K – 8th K

1st Unknown – 1st K– 2nd K– 3rd K- 4th K– 5th K-6th K– 7th K– 8th K– 9th K

Move 1st Unknown to 1st Known position – Remove 9th Known – add 2nd Unknown

_________Continue adding unknowns, up to 5, until student begins missing them