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Pregnancy and Childbirth

Pregnancy and Childbirth

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Pregnancy and Childbirth

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  1. Pregnancy and Childbirth All images are from Google Images

  2. Preconception Health • Annual Gynecologist Visits • Nutrition/Exercise • STI Prevention/Treatment • Drug/Alcohol Abuse/Use • Folic Acid

  3. Implantation • Sperm reach egg within ------- • Fertilization usually occurs within 24 hours after ovulation • 24-30 hours after fertilization genetic material is joined, forming a zygote • 36 hours – 2 cells • 48 hours – 4 cells • 4 days – blastocyst • 7-8 days after fertilization, the blastocyst can attach to the endometrium • Fetus at 8 weeks

  4. Signs and Symptoms of Pregnancy • Amenorrhea • Change in Breast Tissue • Size, tenderness, areola may darken • Increased Frequency of Urination • Morning Sickness • Fatigue • Growing Waistline • Moodiness • Quickening • Braxton-Hicks Contractions • Acid Reflux • Appetite/cravings

  5. Doctor’s Observations • Change in Reproductive Organs • Fetal Heart Beat • Fetal Movements • Fetal Outline • Gender Determination

  6. Laboratory Tests • Urine or Blood Testing • Home Pregnancy Tests Doctor will confirm • Both test for Human Chorionic Gonadatropin (HCG) hormone which is present about 8 days after conception occurs • When is the baby due?

  7. Prenatal Care • A woman should see her doctor after the second missed period • Medical History • Blood and Urine test • Nutrition – Vitamins and minerals to help developing baby • STOP using any hormonal contraceptive methods • Avoid alcohol - FAS • Avoid cigarettes • Avoid drugs

  8. Nausea and vomiting Leg Cramps Pressure Varicose Veins Numbness and Tingling Flatulence Edema Palpitations Fainting Drug and Food Sensitivity Stretch Marks Hemorrhoids Common Disorders

  9. Danger Signals During Pregnancy • Vaginal bleeding • Swelling of face and fingers • Manifestations of toxemia • Labor contractions • Amniotic Sac breaking • Chills and fever • Lower fetal kick count

  10. Complications • Miscarriage • Premature Birth • Ectopic Pregnancy • Placenta Previa • Premature Placenta Separation

  11. Amniotic Sac • Also known as “bag of waters” • At delivery the sac contains 1-2 quarts of fluid • Helps regulate baby’s temperature • Cushions fetus from possible injury • Provides a medium in which the fetus can move • At 21 weeks fetal respiration occurs • The fluid is sampled for Amniocentesis

  12. Placenta • Organ that transports nutrition and oxygen from mother to fetus and transports waste products from fetus to mother • Nutrition • Respiration • Excretion • Barrier • Produces Hormones

  13. Umbilical Cord • Connects the Fetus and Placenta connected through, developing at 25 days • Long semitransparent “rope” containing one vein and two arteries • Surrounded by jelly-like substance to protect it • Large number of substances can pass through and enter the fetus’ circulation

  14. 1st Trimester • Weeks 1-12 • Zygote – united sperm and ovum • Blastocyte – multi-celled at 4 days, implanted within 8 days • Embryo – 4 weeks • At the end of 2nd month-1.2 inches long, the head represents half of the embryo’s bulk and facial features (eyes, ears, nose, lips, tongue) are present • The third month – It is now a fetus, is about 3 inches, and has nails and genitals can be seen.

  15. 2nd Trimester • Beginning of the 4th month • Fourth month is the time for the greatest amount of fetal growth • Quickening begins • End of the 5th month – 1 lb • Head hair and subcutaneous fat • The fetus sleeps, wakes, and has preferred body positions • In the 6th month the body is covered with fine hair, the eyes become light sensitive, and it can hear uterine sounds.

  16. 3rd Trimester • The baby begins to position itself for birth • The fetus is much more baby like • By the end of the 7th month the baby can survive outside the womb • At the end of the 8th month the fetus is over 5 lbs, skin redness, and wrinkles lessen. • The nails reach the end of fingers and toes. • Between week 38-40 the head is 60% its full size and the fine hair has almost disappeared being replaced by vernix

  17. Different Types of Birth • Forceps • Caesarean • Breech • Multiple Births • Induced Labor

  18. Labor • Begins due to hormonal changes • Early signs • Lightening • Loss or leveling of weight • Spurt of energy • Actual signs • Amniotic sac ruptures • The appearance of “show” • Rhythmic contractions of uterus

  19. Stage One • Dilation of Cervix • Effacement of cervix occurs due to the uterine contractions • Starts with the first contractions • Ends when the cervix is 10 cm Stage 2 • Actual Delivery of baby • Crowning • Episiotomy Stage 3 Delivery of afterbirth

  20. Apgar Test • 1 and 5 minutes after birth • The baby is tested on the following and given a score. 10 is the highest, 7 is determined to be healthy • Heart rate • Respiration • Muscle tone • Reflex irritability • Color