REGIONAL URBAN SECTOR PROFILE STUDY – (RUSPS) GHANA PRESENTED AT THE URBANISATION CHALLENGES IN AFRICA WORKSHOP JAN 26-28, 2005 GHANA DELEGATIONMr. D. A. Nyankamawu.: Chief Director, Ministry of Local Government and Rural DevelopmentHon. Nana Ato Arthur: Mayor of Elmina, (District Chief Executive, KEEA District Assembly) GHANA NATIONAL PROFILE
GHANA : BACKGROUND Ghana is in the West Coast of Africa Shares borders with Burkina Faso in the North Cote d’Ivoire West Republic of Togo East Gulf of Guinea South Gained Independence On March 6, 1957 Accra is the capital Ho
BASIC DATA • Area 238,533 km^2 • 2000 Population 18.9 Million , Estimated to be 20 million now • Average growth rate 2.7%. • Female ratio 50.5 % • 45% of population below 15 years. • 45.4% of population urban based in 2003 • 39.9% of Population below poverty line
Ghana: The RUSPS OVERALL GOAL • To reduce urban poverty Areas Selected for Study: Accra, Tamale and Ho • 4 Key Themes Considered were: • Urban Governance • Slum Improvement and Secure Tenure • Gender and HIV/AIDS • Urban Environment
GHANA : Overview of the 4 Themes SLUM IMPROVEMENT AND SECURE TENURE: • The Constitution makes provision for equal access to land • Customary practices discriminate against female inheriting land from their fathers • The number of landless and homeless is about 3 percent, and higher in the larger urban settlements URBAN GOVERNANCE: • Local government system espoused a three-tier system (four tier in the case of Metropolitan Assemblies) level. • Ensuring participation • The National Urban Policy yet to be in place.
GHANA : Overview – cont’d • GENDER AND HIV/AIDS: • Women, constituting 50.5% of the population and experience greater poverty and utilisation of productive resources and lower literacy rates. • They are most prone to attract HIV/AIDS and most afflicted. • URBAN ENVIRONMENT: • Inability to manage solid and liquid waste • Incidence of periodic flooding • Lack of storm water drainage and roadside drains, • Unorganised informal sector activities, crowded and unhygienic markets, domestic and outdoor pollution
URBAN GOVERNANCE: CURRENT EFFORTS • Increasing number of districts from 110 to 138 in 2004 in order to deepen decentralisation and local democracy • Establishment of Local Government Service Council to undertake effective decentralisation • Establishment of Presidential Advisory Committee on Decentralisation • Establishment of National Decentralisation Action Plan in 2003 to provide a sector wide approach to decentralisation
SLUM AND SHELTER – Current Efforts • The Ministry of Works and Housing facilitated funding from SSNIT and the HFC to provide infrastructure for housing development. • Acquisition of land banks in all the ten regional capitals for housing development. • Land Administration Project (LAP) is a long-term commitment to enhance economic and social growth by improving security of tenure, simplifying the process of acquiring land, developing and fostering prudent land management • Urban Environmental Sanitation Project (UESP 2) ie. WB-GOG project is being implemented in 5 cities . • MWH has also sought assistance of $28 million from BALAST NEDRAM for water supply in Cape Coast and Winneba.
GENDER AND HIV/AIDS –Current Efforts • Min of Women and Children’s Affairs(MOWAC) is established for gender policy analysis and programming. It is the entity designated to initiate, coordinate and monitor gender responsive issues • Draft National Gender and Children Policy Framework. The overall goal of this Policy Framework is to mainstream gender concerns in the national development process • Bill on Violence Against Women being debated in Parliament • Established Ghana Aids Commission • 1% of DACF set aside for DRI on HIV/AIDS awareness
POSSIBLE AREAS OF COOPERATION WITH EC/UN HABITAT GOVERNANCE • Building Institutional Capacity to implement and sustain decentralisation and poverty reduction strategies INSTITUTIONAL LOCATION; Min. of Local Government and Rural Development • IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: EU, UNHABITAT, District Assemblies, Civil Society • TARGETED BENEFICIARIES: DAs, NGOs, CBOs,
Governance – cont’d • Develop Urban Policy • Institutional Location: Min of Local Government and Rural Development • Implementation Partners: EC, UN Habitat, Min. of Local Govt., Min of Works and Housing • Targeted Beneficiaries: District Assemblies, Development Partners, NGOs
SLUM AND SHELTER • Training and Retention of Staff in shelter policy formulation • Capacity Building in Monitoring and Evaluation of Housing Development • Institutional Location: Min of Works and Housing (MWH) • Implementation Partners: EC, UN Habitat, MWH, KNUST
GENDER AND HIV/AIDS • Supporting District Assemblies to deal with gender inequality issues • Integrate programmes on land rights and advocacy on secure tenure into UN Gender System Programme • Institutional Location: MOWAC • Implementation Partners: Min of Finance and Economic Planning, MOWAC, EC, UN Habitat Min of Education, Min of Local Government • Targeted Beneficiaries: DAs, Civil Society
URBAN ENVIRONMENT • Support policy formulation on Urban Environment • Institutional Location: Min of Environment and Science • Implementation Partners: EC, UN Habitat, Min of Environment , Min of Local Government • Targeted Beneficiaries: Town and Country Planning, Environmental Protection Agency, DAs.
CONCLUSION • Ghana Government is committed to solving challenges posed by urbanisation • Ghana wholeheartedly welcomes support from EC , UN HABITAT as well as other development partners Thank you !!!
BACKGROUND • Accra is the nerve centre of economic growth and administration of Ghana. • Major centre for manufacturing, marketing, finance, insurance, transportation and tourism • The financial hub of the country.
URBAN GOVERNANCE • Functions of AMA are as follows: • Provision of a sound sanitary and healthy environment; • Provision of educational infrastructure for first and second cycle schools; • Provision of markets and lorry parks within the Metropolis; • The planning and development control of all infrastructure within Accra; • Activities bordering on the maintenance of peace and security within the Metropolis; • Provision of public safety and comfort; The Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) is a corporate body and the highest political and administrative organ in Accra. The Assembly has legislative, deliberate and executive functions.
URBAN GOVERNANCE • AMA spends 66.7% of its revenue on recurrent expenditure whilst 33.3% on capital expenditure. • The rateable value of over 50,506 identified residential properties and about 4,054 commercial/Industrial/Mixed properties is estimated to be at $150,532,758. • Its fiscal capacity of the Assembly is estimated to be at $9,720,229 Tax effort is estimated to be 30.17%.
CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING • Reorganisation of the institutional structure • Introduce Geographic information System into the management of the city • Human resource development • Identification and mobilisation of revenue from non-traditional sources
SLUM AND SHELTER • Physical development in Accra is governed by Master Plan and Sector Layout. • The Metropolitan Planning Committee is a multi-disciplinary committee chaired by the Chief Executive. It has the responsibility for the management of the land use plans and physical development • Physical development “runs faster” than planning. There are large areas, especially peripheral areas, that are unplanned • The weak statutory land use planning has opened avenue for the poor to cash in for their housing needs. It is estimated that the alternative housing cater for about 58% of population of Accra.
SLUM AND SHELTER CASE STUDY World Bank Urban Projects and Urban Environmental Sanitation Project For the past 10 years or so the Ghana Government with credit from the World Bank is undertaking upgrading in fifteen (15) poor communities in Accra. The project as implemented in different phases has 2 components – The Urban Projects and Urban Environmental Sanitation Projects (UESP). The Urban Projects are focused on providing storm and secondary drainage facilities in selected poor communities. The UESP is concentrated on sanitation –that is liquid and solid waste management.
GENDER AND HIV/AIDS • There are more women carriers of the HIV/AIDS virus than men, and worse among sex workers where the prevalence rate 75% in Accra. • Majority of women, employed in the informal sector, have unstable economic conditions, and live below the national poverty line of $210 per year. • Women continue to be vulnerable in the socio-economic environment where men determine sharing of resources and power.
GENDER AND HIV/AIDS • Women constitute 20% of the total labour force in the formal sector whilst their participation in the informal sector is 48%. • There are 104 Assembly members representing each electoral area in Accra; Women constitute 22.12% of this number.
URBAN ENVIRONMENT • The city environment is characterised by choked drains, indiscriminate waste disposal and uncollected refuse in central waste containers. • Between 1,500 – 1,800 tonnes of waste per day, it has the capacity to collect only 1,200 (66.7%) waste per day. • Private participation in environmental management ranges from individual waste cart pushers (kayabola), to multi-national waste management consortium. • The Waste Department of AMA has generally relegated direct collection of solid waste to the private sector • The Department is responsible for management of final deposal site (Land filling and Composting sites) • There are 120 loose management contract agreements with both Community Based Toilet Management Teams and individuals to manage over 300 public toilets
CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING • Capacity building programmes for Environmental and Public Health officers in ensuring community and people compliance to environmental bye-laws. • Capacity building for AMA management in drafting, managing and monitoring and implementation of contract agreements • Capacity building for public/private participation in effective waste management • Design and operation of viable environmental policy framework for Accra
BACKGROUND Area: 922 sq km Pop growth rate: 3.5% ADMINISTRATION: The Tamale Municipal Assembly (TAMA) was established by L.I. 1453, and governed under the Local Government Law, Act 462. The Tamale Assembly lacks the requisite manpower at both senior management level and at the junior staff level for effective management of the city. It has a total staff population of 319 employees. Resource allocation for 2003 is as follows: personal emoluments 65.3%, travel and transport 14%, repairs and renewal 2.6%, general expenditure 8.7% and miscellaneous 8.2%
BACKGROUND • Tamale is the capital town of the Northern Region one of ten in the country. • It is located within the Guinea Savannah belt. It is the fourth largest city in Ghana with a population of 293,881 comprising 146,979.males and 146,902 female • Growth rate of 3.5%. • The size of Tamale is approximately 922km sq. • The Municipality is poorly endowed with water bodies. The only water systems are a few seasonal streams, which dry up during the dry season. The other water bodies include dugouts and dams. The city attracts population from all over the northern region.
URAN GOVERNANCE NSTITUTIONAL SET UP • Membership of the Assembly comprises 52 elected and 30 appointed members • It is the highest political and administrative authority in the Municipality. At the sub municipal level TAMA has 11 Zonal Councils and 91 Unit Committees. • 13 decentralized departments • There 8 sub-committees of the General Assembly of TAMA. • District Assemblies Common Fund finance about 45.50% of development projects and programmes, • In 2003 Common Fund released to the Assembly was $256,061.36. Disbursement of DACF focused on education, health, water and sanitation and micro enterprise support for poverty alleviation programme • TAMA locally generated revenue has improved over the past three years. High growth 91.17% achievement of the yearly budget. The Actual performance over the period has increased from 36% to 350%.
SLUM AND SHELTER BEST PRACTICE Small town water system for Tamale Rehabilitation of an old well in the centre of Tamale by an NGO and the Assembly. The well is fitted with an electric pump and an overhead tank. It provides water throughout the year for residents in central Tamale. Plans are far advanced to replicate the project in other parts of Tamale. • Majority of housing in Tamale are compound houses constructed from mud and thatch. • Central Government and international bodies are normally responsible for the preparation and implementation of slum upgrading projects. • The cities do not have strategies aimed at slum upgrading. • Tamale has a Master Plan since 1992. • Slum dwellers in Tamale have secure tenure but do not have good infrastructure and services.
GENDER AND HIV/AIDS • The affirmative policy position for women is upon the background that being a largely Moslem and traditional community women’s participation had been limited to domestic issues. • Micro credit facilities for women groups; • women groups sponsored on forums to discuss HIV/AIDS; special programmes for women and vulnerable group. • A number of issues relating to women and children in Tamale include traditional and customary practices against women, violence against women, early and forced marriages, high school drop rate and teenage pregnancy. • Many of the girl child dropouts migrate to the south to look for jobs.
URBAN ENVIORNMENT • 150 tonnes of solid are generate daily but the Assembly is only able to clear 7.5 tonnes a day. • 80% of the population depend on public toilets or other illegal modes of toilets. • Proliferation of commercial and light industrial activities within the residential areas is another environmental problem facing the township. • Development control enforcement in the township has been very weak • The city has an engineered landfill site and liquid waste treatment plant but there are no vehicles to transport the waste to the disposal points. • Budget for environmental activity is too small. Funding for sanitation comes only from central government, No user charges for use of sanitation facilities
BACKGROUND POPULATION DISTRIBUTION High Income Bankoe Residential - 3% Middle Income Toviadzi - 9% Blisam - 10% Loboli - 8% Heve - 10% Borsontoe - 4% Low Income Bankoe central - 19% Bankoe sava
BACKGROUND • Ho is one of the twelve (12) districts in the Volta Region. • It has a population of 61,099, and the administrative and commercial capital of the Volta Region. • Over the pass year population growth and urban dependency on infrastructure have far exceeded acceptable standards. • Some infrastructure provision has been made, theses constitute insignificant proportion of infrastructure needs of the municipality. • The city is limited by the poor institutional set and regulatory framework for an effective municipal management.
BACKGROUND FINANCIAL SITUATION • Over 70% of the Assembly’s revenue is from central government sources. • There have been encouraging increases in annual revenue due to the substantial increases in grants mainly form the District Assembly Common Fund (general grant) and HIPC fund allocation. • The poor financial performance is due to weak institutional arrangement to mobilised revenue. • The sources of internal generated revenue are; basic rate (1.4%), property rate (27.5%), royalty on land (9.2%), fees and fines (38.3%), licenses (10%), rent on assembly’s property (0.3%), interest on investment (11.3%)
URBAN GOVERNANCE • The governance structure is not adequate enough to foster effective municipal management and delivered the type services • Citizens participation in municipal decision-making is limited to data collection and information dissemination • The absence of Citizens Right Charter hinders the participation of residents in the type development that they aspire. • The lack of financial and political autonomy of has left HMC to be more responsive to directive of central government. • The large informal sector which is not organise is a disincentive for revenue collection and the administrative cost of collecting the revenue are sometimes higher than the revenue to be generated.
URBAN GOVERNACE • CAPACITY BUILDING TRAINING • Reorganise the institutional structure and departments to response to the problems of the municipalities • Development and installation of a comprehensive database on all rateable, persons and properties • Establishment of an effective supervisory and monitoring system • Undertake training of revenue collectors • Organize public campaigns to adequately sensitize communities of all the benefits of paying taxes • Develop a contractual agreement (MOU) to be signed by all parties involved in any revenue collection contracted with the Assembly • Provide technical support to all Assembly revenue collectors • Recruitment and train of staff.
SLUM AND SHELTER • HMA has weak institutional capacity to manage land in the Municipality. • Families are responsible for 70%-80% of land. housing construction on family land are most carried out outside land regulation • The Lands Commission, Land Valuation Board and the Survey Department concentrate their activities in securing and management of government land rather than setting up the basis for effective land market system. • High rate of land litigation and fraud has retarded proper development of the city and growing number of slum. • There is virtually no framework and development organisation to upgrade slum.
GENDER AND HIV/AIDS • Affirmative action taken by the Assembly is epitomised by the formation of a non-statutory committee (Gender Sub-committee) to take care of gender related policy issues. • Women are heavily represented in the lower echelons of the Assembly: 12% of administrative class; 33% of junior civil servants and 15% of senior management. • Lack of access to financial and other resources to women; Women are adversely affected by socio-cultural issues • Women limited access to land; they normally have only vested life interest in land • HIV/AIDS Rapid Response Initiative has collapse. It is being revived by the MLGRD. • HIV/AIDS campaign and education is carried out by NGOs on adhoc basis.
URBAN ENVIRONMENT • High migration (population growth of 3.11%) is putting pressure on the city and infrastructure. • weak governance structures has resulted in deterioration of facilities • The city is able to collect only 66% (42 tonnes) of solid waste generated. The rest find their way in drains, open spaces and heaps at inadequate sanitary sites. • There is no door-to-door collection of domestic and industrial waste. • The old part of the municipality has no space for the construction of domestic toilet ONGOING PROJECT Agbokofe Waste Disposal Depot 18.6 hectare of land at Agbokofe is designated for final disposal and treatment of liquid waste (human excreta) and solid waste (refuse). Human excreta are managed through pulic latrines, domestic pan latrines, KVIP and WC. Under the Urban 3 programme funding from World Bank sponsored 557 residential VIP toilets