Presentation on wap
1 / 27

Presentation on WAP - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Presentation on WAP. …Keerti Sharma August 2002. Agenda…. What is WAP ? Limitations of Internet for wireless applications WAP Architecture / protocol stack WAP Components / WML WAP brings Internet to hand-held devices Conclusion. WAP. What is WAP ?.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Presentation on WAP' - rowan-mcmillan

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Presentation on wap

Presentation on WAP

…Keerti Sharma

August 2002


  • What is WAP ?

  • Limitations of Internet for wireless applications

  • WAP Architecture / protocol stack

  • WAP Components / WML

  • WAP brings Internet to hand-held devices

  • Conclusion


What is wap
What is WAP ?

  • WAP – The Wireless Application Protocol

    • Makes it possible to access the Internet via wireless devices such as mobile phones, PDAs etc.

    • Set of rules governing transmission/reception of data by wireless devices (e.g. mobile phones)

set of rules

Limitations of internet for wireless applications
Limitations of Internet for Wireless Applications

  • Traditional Internet applications cannot run on mobile devices because of the following limitations:

    • Low bandwidth network

    • High Latency network

    • Limited connection stability

    • Small display size

    • Limited input facility

    • Limited memory

    • Limited processing power

Limitations of internet contd
Limitations of Internet (contd)…

  • Low bandwidth

    • Size of an HTML page, including graphics … 20 KB

    • Download time (56Kbps modem) … 3 s

    • Bandwidth of wireless network … 9.6Kbps

    • Download time for data on one page … 17 s

  • High latency

    • At the expiry of retransmission timer value, the TCP layer resends the packet of data

    • An average latency in a wireless network is around ½ s but can be as high as 10s

    • This can cause a lot of retransmission causing severe congestion

Limitations of internet contd1
Limitations of Internet (contd)…

  • Limited connection stability

  • Small display size

  • Limited input facility

  • Limited memory

  • Limited processing power

the WAP forum

Wap architecture contd



Web Server

WAP Gateway





WML Encoder




WML Decks

with WML-Script




Protocol Adapters



WAP Architecture (contd)…

Wap architecture contd1


WAP Application Server


WML Encoder







WML Decks

with WML-Script


Protocol Adapters



WAP Architecture (contd)…


Wap architecture contd2

WAE - holds the tools that wireless Internet content developers use.

WSP - determines whether a session between the device and the network will be connection-oriented or connectionless.

WTP - acts like a traffic cop, keeping the data flowing in a logical and smooth manner. It also determines how to classify each transaction request:

Reliable two way (WTP/C)

Reliable one way (WTP/T)

Unreliable one way (WTP/D)

WTLS - provides many of the same security features found in the Transport Layer Security (TLS) part of TCP/IP.

WDP - makes it easy to adapt the transport layer to a variety of bearers because all that needs to change is the information maintained at this level.

WAP Architecture (contd)…

Wap architecture contd4
WAP Architecture (contd)…

  • In a real WAP solution, the main components include:

    • WAP Device

    • Bearer

    • WAP Gateway

    • Content

    • Content Server

Wap components contd
WAP Components (contd)…

  • WAP Gateway

    • Encoder: converts WML to binarized WML

    • Adaptor: provides additional information through HTTP header

      • Translate HTTP requests to WSP.

      • Convert between SSL and WTLS

      • Convert transport protocols (TCP and WDP)

Wap components contd1
WAP Components (contd)…

  • WML (Wireless Markup Language)

    • An XML-based markup language that describes how WAP content is presented on a wireless terminal

  • Differs from HTML in the following

    • WML was specifically designed for wireless terminals with a target screen that is only a few lines long and about an inch wide.

    • WML is case sensitive, and all tags and attributes should be in lowercase.

    • Unlike HTML, WML is unforgiving of incorrectly nested tags.

    • WML doesn't assume that a keyboard or a mouse is available for user input.

  • Based on these differences, WML provides a smaller, telephony-aware set of tags that make it more appropriate than HTML for handheld wireless terminals.

Wap components contd2
WAP Components (contd)…

  • WML Contd…

    • Card metaphor

      • User interactions are split into cards

      • Navigation occurs between cards

    • Explicit inter-card navigation model

      • Hyperlinks

      • History

    • State management and variables

      • Reduce network traffic

      • Results in better caching

Example of wml




<GO URL=“#eCard”/>




<CARD NAME=“eCard”>


<GO URL=“/submit?N=$(N)&S=$(S)”/>


Enter name: <INPUT KEY=“N”/>

Choose speed:












Example of WML …


A deck of cards
A Deck of Cards …




<GO URL="#card2"/>


Acme Inc.<BR/>Directory


<CARD NAME="card2">


<GO URL="?send=$type"/>



<SELECT KEY="type">








Acme Inc.






2 Phone



Wap brings internet to hand held devices
WAP brings Internet to Hand- held Devices

  • WAP handles limited bandwidth

    • Minimizes traffic over wireless interface

    • WSP layer, too, is binary encoded

    • WTP is not only designed to minimize amount of data but also number of transactions

  • WAP handles high latency

    • WAE uses scripting to avoid round trip delays, e.g. by validating user input locally

    • WTAI environment introduces a repository to hold services that should be started in response to an event in mobile network, e.g. incoming call.

Wap brings contd
WAP brings (contd)…

  • WAP handles less stable connections

    • The sessions supported by WSP are assumed to be long-lived.

    • WTP layer has been kept very simple compared to TCP

    • WTP supports selective retransmission of data

  • WAP handles small displays

    • WML structures its documents in ‘Decks & Cards’

    • When an application is executed, user navigates through a series of cards

Wap brings contd1
WAP brings (contd)…

  • WAP handles limited input facilities

    • The WML elements can be easily be implemented without much input required from the key-board

    • Deck & Cards model requires minimal navigation between pages

    • Soft buttons or user-definable keys are also supported by WML

  • WAP handles limited memory and CPU

    • Defining a light weight protocol stack

    • Limited functionality provided by WML & WMLScript

    • Binary encoding of WML & WMLScript


  • WAP provides a “microbrowser” optimized for wireless devices

    • Requires minimal RAM, ROM, Display, CPU and keys

  • WAP Offers Bearer Independence

    • Allows Applications developed once to work across all networks

    • Protects the Carrier’s investment in wireless data as networks evolve

    • Enables Mobile Device Manufacturers to use  common code across products

  • WAP Offers Device Independence

    • Allows applications developed once to work across devices from small handsets to powerful PDAs

    • Promotes consistent user experience across all of a carrier’s handset offerings

    • Encourages a wealth of applications for handset manufacturers

Some wap applications
Some WAP applications

  • Financial services

    • Banking

    • Bill-paying

    • Stock trading

    • Funds transfers

  • Travel services

    • Schedules and rescheduling

    • Reservations

  • Location-based services

    • Real-time traffic reporting

    • Event/restaurant recommendation

    • Highly customized ads

    • Instant messaging-type “buddy” location

  • Enterprise solutions

    • Email access

    • Database access

    • A “global intranet”

    • Information updates “pushed” to WAP devices

Some known wap services
Some known WAP Services

  • 123Jump (

    A selection of stock data & news, all via WAP

  • Ajaxo (

    A WAP service for wireless stock trading from any WAP enabled device

  • 2PL WorldWide Hotel Guide (

    A hotel guide, accessible in multiple languages via WAP enabled device

  • Traffic Maps (

    A French service that monitors and shows latest traffic news via maps

Wap demo
WAP demo


Next presentation will cover
Next presentation will cover …

  • WAP 2.0

  • Integrating JAVA with WAP

  • Push Technology in WAP

  • Using WAP with Bluetooth

References 1
References 1.

References 2
References 2.

  • Professional WAP

  • WAP – A Beginner’s Guide by Dale Bulbrook

  • Wireless Crash Course by Bedell

  • Cracking the Code – WAP, Bluetooth & 3G Programming

  • WAP Integrationby Vujosevic & Laberge

  • WAP 2.0 Development by Tull