The Organelles of Cells What are cells? What makes up a cell? What are the different parts of a cell?
Cells & the Basic Unit of Life Cells are the smallest known functioning units of life Any known living organism must be made up of at least one cell Cells have a number of different organelles working together to help the cell carry out its tasks
Plant vs. Animal Cells What are the differences between the two?
Plant vs. Animal Cells Plant cells have a CELL WALL that is ridged and helps the cell maintain structure… Animal cells do not! Plant cells have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll (green pigment)… Animal cells do not
Plant vs. Animal Cells Both plant & animal cells have mitochondria to burn energy for the cell, but only the plant cell has chloroplasts that create energy for the cell
Cell Organelles Nucleus Is usually the most obvious organelle in the cell & houses the DNA and decides “what the cell needs to do” DNA Is a special chemical code that holds all of the “instructions” on how the cell should run and how to “build” a new organism Vacuole Plays a role in cell digestion of nutrients and storing of waste… it stores stuff for the cell
Cell Organelles Cytosol Is the extra liquid within the cell that all of the organelles float in… it fills up the cell Cytoplasm Is a collective term given to not only the cytosol, but includes all of the other organelles suspended within the cell Golgi Packages and ships cell products throughout the cell and out of the cell
Cell Organelles Cell Membrane Is a special layer that encases the cell and only allows certain material into and out of the cell Cell Wall Is made of a much more rigid material that helps the cell maintain a certain shape (ONLY FOUND IN PLANT CELLS) Cytoskeleton Is a network of fine fibers that help in cell structure and in many cases, cell movement
Cell Organelles Mitochondria Are little “power plants” that burn up nutrients in order to give the cell energy to operate Chloroplasts Are little “solar panels” that collect energy from the suns rays to create food for the cell Ribosomes It reads coded messages from the DNA and then create material needed by the cell based on the code it reads
Cell Organelles Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Has a variety of jobs within cells which include breaking material down for the cell or delivering material for the cell Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Is rough because it is covered in ribosomes and is where “stuff” is synthesized by the cell and shipped off
Specialized Cells Specialized cells within multi celled organisms (like us) will synthesize “stuff” like hormones or proteins to be used by cell within the rest of the organism This is what the ribosomes are producing in the Rough ER and then carried to the outer membrane by the smooth ER and golgi to be released and used by other cells In single celled organisms, this is not the case and they don’t have an intricate shipping and exporting system
The Order of Things Step 1 – DNA is copied within the nucleus by ribosomes Step 2 – Ribosome then carry the copy to the rough ER and synthesize what is in the code Step 3 – Once the inside of the ER is full and the ribosomes are done synthesizing, the ribosomes leave and the now smooth ER separates and carries the “stuff” to the outer membrane for export
Right Now!!! Lets get going on a brief work sheet that has you label the organelles within the cell We will go over these diagrams in a few minutes and check them over as a class
Nucleus 1 Golgi 11 Question 1… Organelles of Plant Cells Cytosol 2 10 Vacuole Cell Membrane 3 Chloroplasts 9 Cell Wall Total of 11 marks for this cell diagram 4 Rough ER Ribosomes (Pointing to the inside of the folded membrane)) 8 5 (Pointing to the red dots) Smooth ER 6 7 Mitochondria
Question 1… Organelles of Animal Cells Nucleus 9 8 Golgi Cytosol 1 Rough ER (Pointing to the inside of the folded membrane)) 7 Vacuole Ribosomes 2 6 (Pointing to the red dots) Total of 9 marks for this cell diagram Cell Membrane 5 4 Mitochondria Smooth ER 3
Question 2 What would you consider to be the “BRAIN” of the cell? The Nucleus (1 mark) What would you consider to be the “FILLER” of the cell? The Cytosol(1 mark) What would you consider to be the “MESSENGER” of the cell? The Ribosomes(1 mark) What would you consider to be the “POWER PLANT” of the cell? The Mitochondria (1 mark) What would you consider to be the “STORAGE BIN” of the cell? The Vacuole (1 mark) What would you consider to be the “SOLAR PANNEL” of the cell? The Chloroplast (1 mark) Total of 6 marks for question
Question 3 The “parts” of cells are usually referred to as… ORGANELLES(1 mark) Total of 1 mark for question 3
Question 4 What are the two main differences between plant and animal cells? Plant cells have a cell wall (1 mark) to maintain cell shape under suction (1 mark) … animal cells do not Plant cells have chloroplast (1 mark) which are responsible for photosynthesis because they produce their own food (1 mark) … animal cells are consumers so they don’t need chloroplasts Total of 4 marks for question 2
Question 5 Single celled organisms do not have as many organelles like golgi, ribosomes, or endoplasmic reticulum when compared to multi cellular organisms… Why? Multi cellular organism’s cells are responsible for producing material that the rest of the cells need (1 mark) therefore they have more organelles that produce, hold and distribute what ever that specialized cell is responsible for synthesizing (1 mark) Total of 2 marks for question 5
Coming Up Soon!!! Don’t forget that you have a quiz coming up in the very near future You need to be working on your cheat sheets (hand written only… no cutting and pasting) The quiz will encompass everything on the cell and microscopes
Is DNA running your life? Have you seen the following videos?
Is DNA running your life? What Ethical questions do these videos raise in regards to life? Who owns DNA or genes? What are your opinions about how life is viewed in these movies? What do think about genetic screening that is already taking place?