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Runway Incursions and Situational Awareness . ATB5-1. Runway Incursion. A runway incursion is "Any occurrence at an airport involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft.".

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Runway Incursion

A runway incursion is "Any occurrence at an airport involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft."

slide4

Common Locations of Runway Incursions Regardless of Airport Size or Level of Operational Activity

  • Complex & Confusing Intersections
  • Runway/Runway Intersections
  • Runway/Taxiway Intersections
  • Runway Thresholds
runway incursions
Runway Incursions

The FAA categorizes Runway Incursions in

Four categories depending on the potential

For collision.

A - Separation decreases and participants take

extreme action to narrowly avoid a collision

B - Separation decreases and there is a significant

potential for collision

C - Separation decreases but there is ample time

and distance to avoid a potential collision

D - Little or no chance of collision but meets the

definition of a runway incursion

slide6

Severity Categories

Animated Illustration

9

A

B

C

D

Significant

potential

for collision

Barely

avoid

collision

Ample time and distance to avoid collision

Little or no risk of collision

  • Above scenarios are all classified as runway incursions, but with different severity codes.
  • In each case the taxiing aircraft penetrated the runway safety area (hold position) AND
  • A collision hazard or loss of separation occurred with the landing aircraft.
all categories of runway incursions
All Categories of Runway Incursions

Runway Incursion Rate

Runway Incursions per 1,000,000 Tower Operations

Rate est. 14.46* as of 05/18//08

15.0

14.0

14.60

13.0

13.34

549 as of 05/18/07

12.0

12.36

11.0

11.56

10.0

9.0

8.0

YTD 05/18/08

63.12

63.01

61.13

61.15

TowerOperations (millions)

* Rates are based on Estimated Tower Operations

severity distribution of runway incursions
Severity Distribution of Runway Incursions

FY 2004-2007

FY 2008 YTD (05/18/08)

runway incursions1
Runway Incursions
  • 480 Air Traffic Control Towers
  • 268 million operations (67 million/year)
  • 1460 incursions total (5 incursions/million)
  • Over 80% are Category C and D events
  • 71% of aircraft incursions involve two GA aircraft
pilot deviation
Pilot Deviation

Pilot Deviation (PD)

The actions of a pilot that result in the violation of a Federal Aviation Regulation.

When it appears that the actions of a pilot constitute a possible pilot deviation, the controller will notify the pilot, workload permitting, using the following phraseology

“(aircraft identification) possible pilot deviation, advise you contact (facility) at (telephone number)”.

slide11

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

31% Improper readback / hearback

56% Not following ATC instructions

slide12

Vehicle / Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD)

Crossing the holding position marking

Without ATC authorization

operational error
Operational Error
  • Operational Error (OE)
  • FAA Orders
  • An occurrence attributable to an element of the air traffic system in which:
  • Less than the applicable separation minima results between two or more aircraft, or between an aircraft and terrain or obstacles; or
  • An aircraft lands or departs on a runway closed to aircraft operations after receiving air traffic authorization
distribution by type of runway incursions
Distribution by Type of Runway Incursions

FY 2004-2007

FY 2008 YTD (05/18/08)

slide15

ATC ERRORS - INCURSIONS DUE TO….

25% deviation from SOP

32% poor communications

32% inadequate scan

10% Lapse of

memory

faa s definition of situational awareness
FAA’s DEFINITION OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
  • According to the FAA 7210.3 ….. ”Situational awareness is defined as a continuous extraction of environmental information, integration of this information with previous knowledge to form a coherent mental picture, and the use of that picture in directing further perception and anticipating future events.”
slide17

Challenges facing Air Crews

and Air Traffic Controllers

  • Taxi operations are difficult and potentially hazardous
  • Air traffic volume is expected to increase
  • Air Traffic System is more complex
  • Airport layout design is more complicated
  • Technology improvements at airports have not kept pace with demand
causes of major runway incursions and oe s
Causes of Major Runway Incursions and OE’s
  • Loss of Situational Awareness
  • Misunderstanding ATC / Pilot communications
  • Lapse in short-term memory
  • Deviation from SOPs

HUMAN ERROR

loss of situational awareness
LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

STRATEGY-

Plan your “head down” time wisely

  • Stripmarking / Chart reading
  • Reading weather
  • Adjusting controls
  • Non essential duties
loss of situational awareness1
LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

STRATEGY-

Use memory joggers

  • Writing pads
  • Strips
  • Lights / Bells / Controls
loss of situational awareness2
LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

or… “Looking at our surroundings through a straw”

STRATEGY -

  • Keep the“BIG” picture
  • SCAN – look out the windows
loss of situational awareness3
LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

STRATEGY –

Continue to Scan even when reading a clearance / reading back a clearance or performing other duties

loss of situational awareness4
LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

LUAW (Line up and Wait) = time for extra vigilance

STRATEGY-

Controller– Some type of memory jogger

Pilot – Should wait no more than a minute in position without confirming TIPH with tower

slide24

PILOTS AND CONTROLLERS

Know who

is who!

Know who

is where!

controller pilot misunderstanding
CONTROLLER / PILOT MISUNDERSTANDING

STRATEGY -

  • Use your headset rather than the speaker and microphone
  • Use standard phraseology

LISTEN TO READBACKS

lapse in short term working memory
LAPSE IN SHORT-TERM/WORKING MEMORY

STRATEGY –

  • Keep tower cab / cockpit free of distractions, whether your busy or not.
  • Keep non-operational conversations to a minimum
lapse in short term working memory1
LAPSE IN SHORT-TERM/WORKING MEMORY
  • 6-8 items, 20-second retention
  • Task saturation is a ATC and Pilot reality

STRATEGY –

Don’t take on more than

you can handle

slide28

REVIEW

  • Runway incursions (RIs) are infrequent events (5 per million operations).
  • 80% of RIs are minor in severity.
  • Catastrophic RIs are rare (4 since1989).
  • Aircraft operations contribute to RIs in proportion to their representation in the NAS.
  • Most common RIs involve 2 GA planes but are in the minor category.
  • Pilot Deviations account for a majority of runway incursions.
  • Rate of major incursions at busiest airports are twice those of the rest of the airports.
slide29

Runway Incursion Prevention Methods

  • Close teamwork and clear coordination is essential between pilots and controllers.
  • An effective scan of the active runways and taxiways by controllers and pilots is an absolute must.
slide30

“ A superior pilot uses his superior judgment to avoid situations that require the use of his superior skill.”

Aviation proverb