evaluating cloud microphysics schemes in the wrf model n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Evaluating Cloud Microphysics Schemes in the WRF Model PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Evaluating Cloud Microphysics Schemes in the WRF Model

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

Evaluating Cloud Microphysics Schemes in the WRF Model - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 116 Views
  • Uploaded on

Evaluating Cloud Microphysics Schemes in the WRF Model. Andrew Molthan. Fifth Meeting of the Science Advisory Committee 18-20 November, 2009. National Space Science and Technology Center, Huntsville, AL. transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations. Background.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Evaluating Cloud Microphysics Schemes in the WRF Model' - roth-serrano


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
evaluating cloud microphysics schemes in the wrf model

Evaluating Cloud Microphysics Schemes in the WRF Model

Andrew Molthan

Fifth Meeting of the Science Advisory Committee

18-20 November, 2009

National Space Science and Technology Center, Huntsville, AL

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

background
Background
  • High resolution forecast models are increasingly reliant upon bulk water microphysics schemes.
  • Predict cloud constituents and precipitation rather than their net effects.
  • Dilemma:
    • Many schemes available.
    • Numerous assumptions required.
    • Validation is difficult, requiring direct measurement or remote sensing.

Figure 1. Example flow chart of hydrometeor classes and their related processes, adapted from Lin et al. (1983).

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

relevance to nasa sport
Relevance to NASA/SPoRT

OCTOBER 31, 2009

  • Emphasis is on short-term forecasts [0-48 hours], which will rely upon increasingly complex microphysics schemes.
    • SPoRT participates in the NSSL Spring Experiment
    • Developmental Testbed Center exploring use of these schemes in winter weather
    • Consistent increase in “detail” desired by operational NWP
  • By providing validation of scheme assumptions, goal is to improve the prediction of temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover.

PRECIPITATION

RADAR REFLECTIVITY

Figure 2. High resolution (4 km) forecasts produced in real-time as part of the ongoing NSSL experimental forecast program.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

accomplishments since 2007 sac meeting
Accomplishments Since 2007 SAC Meeting
  • Previous Meeting:
    • Discussed CloudSat mission.
    • Presented retrieval products relevant to model validation.
  • SAC Comments:
    • Understood the proof of concept level of work.
    • Advised to “avoid relying upon the model microphysics as truth”.
  • 2007-2009 Emphasis:
    • Use simulated CloudSat reflectivity, not retrievals.
    • Guided by the SAC statement, instead use CloudSat and field campaign measurements to determine if model microphysics are truthful.
    • Questions:
      • Are model assumptions valid?
      • Do simulated clouds appear anything like observations?
      • If not, what are the targets for improvement?

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

approach and methodology
Approach and Methodology
  • Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP), 22 January 2007
    • Synoptic scale snowfall event emphasized here, but lake effect cases also available.
  • Why emphasize snow?
    • Forecast challenges of cold season QPF remain.
    • Minimal CloudSat and operational radar attenuation.
    • Numerous NWP assumptions are made regarding snow and ice.
    • Benefits of improved processes may also extend to stratiform precipitation.

WRF + NASA Goddard Scheme

CloudSat

Crystal Habits

King City C-Band Radar

Snow Crystal Size Distributions and Bulk Density

Figure 3. Examples of WRF model forecast output in conjunction with data sets available from the C3VP campaign.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

methods for evaluation
Methods for Evaluation
  • Aircraft Measurements
    • Crystal imagery used to determine size distribution parameters and bulk density.
  • Surface Measurements
    • Measurement of distributions at the surface, along with terminal velocity.
  • Radar Comparisons
    • Simulate CloudSat using ice crystal scattering databases.
    • Simulate King City data using equivalent pure ice spheres.
    • Compare distributions of reflectivity with height.

Nos

λ

ρs = IWC/VOL

CloudSat CFADs

Snow as Spheres

Snow as Aggregates

Figure 4. Examples of data sets used in the analysis of scheme performance, based upon C3VP data.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

suggested improvements
Suggested Improvements

ρs

Nos

λ

  • The forecast model overestimates the slope parameter.
    • Impact: Mean size of simulated crystals are too small.
    • The model has difficulty representing continued effect of aggregation.
    • In the current framework, λ is a byproduct of other parameters.
  • The use of a fixed distribution intercept fails to represent natural variability.
  • Bulk density increases with height but is not represented by a fixed value.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

temperature based approach
Temperature-Based Approach
  • Follow the guidance of previously published results.
    • Parameterize the slope parameter as a function of temperature: λ(T)
    • Parameterize the bulk density as a function of the slope parameter: ρ(λ)
    • Modify the terminal velocity-diameter relationship to fit observations.
  • Improves the representation of size distribution and bulk density in forecasts.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

temperature based approach1
Temperature-Based Approach

ρs

Nos

λ

  • Each snow-related variable is improved upon versus the control forecast.
  • Key limitation: Dependence on the temperature profile.
    • In this case, the profile is nearly isothermal.
    • This limits the range of the parameterized values for λ and ρ.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

king city radar comparisons
King City Radar Comparisons

λ(T)

CONTROL

King City

sensitive to λ(T)

Model

  • Only subtle changes are noted in the reflectivity CFAD, although the model improves upon representation of the size distribution and density values.
  • Difficulty: Profiles of Z dependent upon the shape of the temperature profile.

λ7(T)

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

cloudsat comparisons
CloudSat Comparisons

λ(T)

CONTROL

CloudSat

Model

  • The spherical representation of snow crystals is insufficient for CloudSat.
  • Must simulate CloudSat based on the properties of actual ice crystal shapes.
  • Little improvement noted in the CloudSat median profile of dBZ using λ(T).

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

column based approach
Column-Based Approach
  • In a second attempt, the “spirit” of temperature-based parameterization is incorporated.
  • Use the excess vapor with respect to the ice saturated value.
  • Column integral or “excess vapor path” ignores complex shape of the temperature profile.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

column based approach1
Column-Based Approach

ρs

Nos

λ

  • Continued improvement over the temperature-based approach.
  • Column integration ignores the profile shape and allows for a full range of λ.
  • Representation of Nosis improved upon from the previous fixed value.

By avoiding the use of fixed constants, either a temperature or column-based approach improves the representation of snow crystals within the scheme.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

improved cloudsat match
Improved CloudSat Match

λ(EXCP)

CONTROL

CloudSat

Model

  • Improved the representation of the median CloudSat profile.
  • Consistent overestimate of dBZ due to the use of simulated aggregates.
    • Simulated aggregates likely differ from observed aggregates.

The CloudSat radar can be used for model validation (a mission goal) as long as reflectivity products are simulated with considerations of ice crystal habit.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

summary and conclusions
Summary and Conclusions
  • The NWP community is interested in pursuing single-moment (or higher) bulk water microphysics schemes to improve short term forecasts.
  • Snowfall is an ideal case for use of the CloudSat radar, but simulation of reflectivity from ice crystals is complex at 94 GHz.
  • Combinations of aircraft and remote sensors demonstrate that the fixed value assumptions in the NASA Goddard scheme fail to represent the character of this case.
  • By adapting previously published relationships or incorporating column-based approaches, we improve upon the representation of snow within a forecast scheme.
  • CloudSat has a demonstrated value in model validation, as long as the data are carefully applied and evaluated alongside other instruments.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

future work
Future Work
  • In applications:
    • Examine additional snowfall events.
    • Application to convective QPF: stratiform precipitation/MCS.
    • Following additional validation, transition to public versions of WRF.
  • Continued development:
    • Adjust the model to avoid a spherical shape assumption.
      • Allow for greater flexibility of ice crystal types and simulation of CloudSat data.
      • Proposed this in a ROSES 2009 submission, to collaborate with NASA Goddard.
    • Explore the simulation of other satellite products from NWP output.
      • Build upon a collaboration with NASA Goddard staff (T. Matsui).
      • Inclusion of ice crystal scattering, as adapted for CloudSat simulation, is key to accurate translation from NWP to simulated satellite data.

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations

questions
Questions?

transitioning unique NASA data and research technologies to operations