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INTRODUCTION

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  1. INTRODUCTION

  2. The Oxygen Transport System

  3. I. Pulmonary VentilationMovement of Air in & out of the Lungs 3

  4. A. Minute Ventilation. VThe amount of Air ventilated by the lungs in one Minute. VEVolume Expired in One Minute 4

  5. Tidal Volume (TV)The volume of Air ventilated per BreathFrequency (f)The Number of Breaths/minuteVE = TV x fMinute ventilation =TV x f 5

  6. Ventilation during Exercise REST Exhaustion 6

  7. Ventilation as a Limit to Performance • Performance is not limited by ventilation • Ventilation will INCREASE out of proportion to workload so that • Ventilation becomes greater than Necessary-HYPERVENTILATION - • excessive movement of air in & out caused by increased depth and frequency of breathing and resulting in elimination of CO2 7

  8. II. Alveolar Ventilation AIR (O2) into lungs Alveoli blood Tiny air sacs deep in lung which have contact with the Pulmonary Capillaries to exchange gases 8

  9. II. Alveolar Ventilation DEAD SPACE those areas of the body that air enters but does not go into the alveoli - hence - NO GAS EXCHANGE 9

  10. Ventilation and Smoking • Shortness of Breath • Increased Airway Resistance • Respiratory Muscles work Harder to ventilate - thus, these muscles require MORE Oxygen Results in LESS Oxygen for Skeletal Muscles 10

  11. Ventilation and Smoking • Pulmonary Ventilation • Endurance • MAXIMUM Oxygen Consumption VO2max = the max rate at which O2 can be consumed per minute 11

  12. Second Wind • Sudden transition of feeling distress or fatigue early in prolonged exercise to a more comfortable feeling later in exercise • Possible Causes include: • slow ventilatory adjustments brought on by the breathlessness felt early’ • Removal of lactic acid built early from delayed blood flow changes • Relief from muscle fatigue • Adequate Warm-up • Psychological factors 12

  13. Stitch in Side • Occurs early in prolonged exercise and subsides as exercise continues • Sharp Pain or “Stitch “ in side or rib cage area • May interfer w/ exercise- must stop • Possible Causes include: • HYPOXIA or lack of O2 in Resp Muscles • occurs more in Untrained athletes 13

  14. II. GAS EXCHANGE Exchange of Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide between the Air and Blood • TWO TYPES • Alveolar Capillary Membrane • Tissue Capillary Membrane 14

  15. Alveolar Capillary Membrane Thin layer of tissue that separates air in Aleoli from blood in Capillaries 1st EXCHANGE of O2 and CO2 15

  16. Tissue Capillary Membrane Capillary with RBC Thin capillary membrane between blood and tissues in body 2nd EXCHANGE of O2 and CO2 16

  17. GAS EXCHANGE by DIFFUSION Movement of gases from higher concentrations to lower concentrations Diffusion Gradient= pp of gas in highest conc. Minus the pp of gas in venous blood 17

  18. Partial PressureThe pressure exerted by gas in relation to the % or concentration of the gas within a volume At sea Level- alveolar pO2 =100mmHbg = 100% sat Hbg 18

  19. Diffusion Gradients dependent on Partial pressures (p) of gas in 2 different areas Blood pO2 LOW Alveoli pO2 HIGH Alveoli pCO2 LOW Blood pCO2 HIGH 19

  20. Diffusion Capacity in Athletes • Alveolar- Capillary diffusion is greater during max exercise in (endurance) athletes than Nonathletes • see Table 8.5 20

  21. NEW SECTION

  22. Transport of Gases by the Blood O2 and CO2 are carried in the blood by: 1.Chemical Combination-OXYHEMOGLOBIN Hb + O2 = HbO2 2. Dissolved in Plasma 22

  23. Oxyhemoglobin

  24. Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve Fig. 8.8- Relationship between Amt of HbO2 and Partial Pressure of O2 Hb O2 Saturation Increases as Partial Pressure of O2 Increases 23

  25. Smoking andOxyhemoglobin Comparison of the oxygen dissociation curves of normal blood, blood containing 20%, 40% and 60% carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and blood from a severely anemic patient. 25

  26. BLOOD DOPING or Blood Boosting • The removal and then- reinfusion of blood • Done to temporarily increase blood volume • Overloading would then increase O2 and theoretically lead to INCREASED Endurance • see Fig. 8.7- ability to run 5 miles faster 26

  27. Carbon Dioxide Transport Transport of CO2 CA CO2 + H2O H2 CO2 Carbonic Acid H2 CO2 H+ + H-CO3 Bicarbonate ion 27

  28. Carbon dioxide is carried in the blood in three major forms: 1. dissolved (a little) 2. as bicarbonate and H+ (a lot) 3. attached to hemoglobin as a carbamino compound. Loading of CO2 from tissue to blood and associated O2 release from blood to tissue. 28

  29. Anatomy of the Heart 29

  30. BLooD FloW through the HeaRt Establishment of the four-chambered heart, along with the pulmonary and systemic circuits, completely separates oxygenated from deoxygenated blood. Fig8.9, p. 201 30

  31. Valves direct Blood Flow 31

  32. Blood Flow to the Body 32

  33. Blood Flow to the Body 33

  34. 34

  35. Blood Vessels and Flow Changes 35A

  36. The Heart MUSCLE Myocardium Intercalated Discs connect the individual fibers of muscle to act as ONE BIG FIBER: Functional Syncytium When one fiber contracts- all fibers contract 35

  37. Conduction System SA node 36 SA node PACEMAKER

  38. Conduction System AV Node 37 AV node Bundle of His PURKINJI FIBERS

  39. Electrical System in Review 38

  40. Blood Supply to the Heart 39

  41. Blood Supply to the Heart Coronary Vessels Coronary Arteries Coronary Veins 40 40

  42. Coronary vessels branch from Aorta: L Coronary Artery & R Coronary Artery 41

  43. Blood Supply to the Heart Coronary Veins Coronary Sinus Right Atrium 42

  44. CARDIAC OUTPUT . Q = CARDIAC OUTPUT SV (ML/BEAT) x HR (BEATS/MIN) L/min 2 Components STROKE VOLUME (SV) HEART RATE (HR) 43

  45. CARDIAC OUTPUT Cardiac Output increases for Endurance Athletes 44

  46. HEART RATE & EXERCISE HEART RATE SUBMAX EXERCISE Max EXERCISE REST 45

  47. Exercise & Blood Flow Vasoconstrictionof Arterioles to Inactive Organs Vasodilation of Arterioles to ActiveMuscles 46

  48. O2 Transport and Endurance • The arterial- mixed venous difference(a- v O2 diff) • Affected by: • the Amt. Of O2 extracted by muscles • overall distribution of blood flow • O2 extracted-- a-v O2 diff -- • ENDURANCE • since less O2 in venous blood 47

  49. O2 Transport and Endurance Performance is affected by: 1. VO2 max max O2 consumption 2. Anerobic Threshold % of VO2 max utilized in relation to Lactic acid production 3. Degree of Efficiency 48

  50. O2 Transport and Endurance Lactic Acid Accumulation begins only after a certain % VO2 max is reached- this starting point is ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD VO2 used/ VO2 max x 100 = % VO2 max 49