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The Chicago School II. SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY. Shaw and McKay. Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zone Model. Concentric Zone Model. Rates for Delinquency were highest at the Center and Declined as one Moved away from the Center ALL Rates were higher. Concentric Zone Model. Shaw and McKay.

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the chicago school ii

The Chicago School II


shaw and mckay

Shaw and McKay

Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zone Model

concentric zone model
Concentric Zone Model
  • Rates for Delinquency were highest at the Center and Declined as one Moved away from the Center
    • ALL Rates were higher
shaw and mckay5
Shaw and McKay

The City is an Organism

Life Experience Varied from one location to another

Values and Norms are Transmitted from Neighborhoods

Delinquency is a Systemic Problem

social disorganization
Social Disorganization

Rapid Changes in industrialization or Immigration

Decline in Effectiveness of Informal Social Control (Social Disorganization)

Development of delinquency areas: Geographically Rooted

primary relationships
Primary Relationships
  • The Weakening of Primary Relationships causes Social Disorganization
  • Primary Relationships: Family Friendships
    • Social controls
  • Rodney Stark (1987)High Rates of Deviance is from: Density, Poverty, Mixed Use, Transience and Dilapidation
symbolic interactionism
Symbolic Interactionism
  • Human Behavior is a Product of Social Symbols Communicated between individuals
  • During the Process of Communicating, we Define ourselves and others
  • We form our Self Concept from our perception of what others think of us
  • This is a Labeling Theory Concept
sellin culture conflict and crime
Sellin: Culture Conflict and Crime

Conduct Norms

  • Primary conflict
    • When Two Different Cultures Govern Behavior
  • Secondary Conflict
    • Smaller Subcultures Form
elements of cultural deviance theory
Elements of Cultural Deviance Theory
  • Poverty
  • Socialization
  • Subculture
  • Success Goal
  • Crime and Delinquency
  • Criminal Careers
social disorganization theory sampson and groves
Social Disorganization Theory ( Sampson and Groves)
  • Low Economic status
  • Mixture of Different Ethnic Groups
  • Highly Mobile Residents in and out of the Area
  • Disrupted Families and Broken Homes
african american sociologists
African American Sociologists
  • “high Black Crime Rates are , in large measure, the result of where they live”(Rodney Stark,1987)
  • During the period following slavery, disorientation of societal norms (Work, 1939)
  • Patterns of delinquent behavior beginning at 11-12 years (Frazier, 1939)
rodney starks theory of deviant neighborhoods
Rodney Starks theory of Deviant Neighborhoods
  • Dense Neighborhoods have Crowded homes
  • Crowded homes force family members outside: Increase opportunity to deviate
  • Lower levels of supervision of children
  • Poor School Achievement
  • Mixed use Neighborhoods
  • Increased Opportunity for Deviance
empirical support of social disorganization
Empirical Support of Social Disorganization

Two Data Gathering Methods:

  • Official Data
    • Crime figures,census reports, housing and welfare records
  • Life History
    • Folk psychology or “ethnography”
policy implications of the chicago school and its offshoots
Policy Implications of the Chicago School(and its offshoots)
  • Urban Renewal Projects: Environmental Design: Crime Prevention should focus on the environment rather than the offender
  • Defensible Space Architecture: The Federal government adopted these concepts into public buildings and planning
policy implications of the chicago school and its offshoots16
Policy Implications of the Chicago School(and its offshoots)
  • Operation Weed and Seed: Weed out negative influences and Seed the neighborhoods
    • Coordination with law enforcement
    • Weed out traffickers
    • Community Policing
    • Seeding by youth activity
policy implications of the chicago school and its offshoots17
Policy Implications of the Chicago School(and its offshoots)
  • Conditions of Parole and Probation
    • As a condition of your probation, you are not allowed to associate with any other probationers…
  • The Chicago Area Project(1934)
    • Recreational Facilities for youth
    • Existed from 1934-present 70 YEARS!
    • Direct service, advocacy and community involvement