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Properties of Fluids. What happens if you drop a penny into a cup of water? Why?. The nail sinks because the density of the steel is greater than the density of the water. But.. What happens when...?.

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properties of fluids
Properties of Fluids
  • What happens if you drop a penny into a cup of water?
  • Why?

The nail sinks because the density of the steel is greater than the density of the water.

but what happens when
But.. What happens when...?
  • But ocean liners are made of steel so why do they float, and since they do float, why do they sometimes also sink?
gravity vs buoyancy
Gravity Vs. Buoyancy
  • Everyone’s heard of gravity - force that pulls everything downward
  • There is also an opposing force – Buoyancy
  • Buoyancy is the push to gravity’s pull.
  • Buoyancy is the force that floats the boat.
buoyancy
Buoyancy
  • To understand buoyant force, let's think about what happens when you put an ice cube into your glass of water.
  • As the ice cube displaces, or pushes away, some of the water it causes the level in the glass to rise and your ice cube to float partially in and partially out of the water like a miniature iceberg.
slide5
Why?
  • Gravity is pulling the ice cube down and buoyant force is pushing it up. How far in or out of the water your ice cube rests depends on its density, or solidness, because that is what the pushing and pulling forces are working against.
slide6

Archimides Principle

  • A Greek mathematician and inventor named Archimedes noticed that when he stepped into his bathtub the water level rose. He reasoned that the weight of the water he displaced was equal to the buoyant force in the water.
  • This is called Archimedes Principle and it applies to all fluids.
remember about the boat
Remember about the boat..
  • Ocean liners are made of steel but they float because their density is less than that of the water they float in.
  • So, what is density??
density10
Density
  • The ability of a boat to float depends on its average density.
  • Average density takes into account not just the weight of the steel hull but also the air trapped in it.
  • A ship with a large volume of trapped air has a lower density than that of the water it sits in – so it floats.
density of the boat
Density of the Boat
  • When a ships hold is full of cargo it floats lower in the water because there is less trapped air making it denser.
  • A ship empty of cargo has more trapped air so it’s less dense and it floats higher out of the surrounding water. If the ship loses enough of its capacity to hold trapped air it sinks.
principles density
Principles - Density
  • 1. Principle: If you pack more mass into a the same volume, it's more dense. (suitcase)
principles density14
Principles - Density
  • 2. Principle: If you pack the same mass into a smaller volume, it's more dense.(styrofoam)