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Discussion Set 5

Discussion Set 5

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Discussion Set 5

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  2. Agenda • Hill – Chapter 6 • Gaining Self-Knowledge • Hill – Chapter 7 • Coping with the Stresses and Emotions • Hofstede - Chapter 4 • He, She, (S)he • Discussion Set Questions


  4. Introduction New Mangers do not at first appreciate the full ramifications of their decision to becoming a Manager. New Managers when accept the position as a promotion, it creates anxiety and also questions which start popping up in their minds such as What, How, Where, Whom etc.… New Mangers start to wonder and ask them-self two types of questions: Will I like Management? Will I be good at Management?

  5. Introduction As years progress the New Mangers start to see a new professional self-concept forming, where they find themselves asking even more unsettling question: Who am I becoming? Not as a Manager but as a Person When one New Manger was asked the above question, they replied that “They where learning more about themselves not only not as a Manager but as a Person”

  6. Why did I Become a Manager? Why does a Work “want to” become a Manager? Tired of being ruled around. Tired of selling and being on commission and doing technical work. Bored of doing the same old work over and over again. Thinking that they can do a better job than there current manger. Make more money than what they may be make currently.

  7. Why did I Become a Manager? Opportunity to have more “Authority” and “Responsibility” than there current position. In short want to be the boss and want to exercise power and influence. To curve out the opportunity to “show other the right way to do the job, to straighten out the inefficient practices around them. ” To contribute to the organization’s success and to be recognized for doing so. The “Workers” see that, the promotion to management, and the associated money, prestige, and status are desirable symbols of higher achievement and success in life.

  8. Comparing a working Position and a Manager Position • A few months into the job as a Manger, they begin start to “appreciate” more what they had given up. • Hard to evaluate them-self on how they are doing as Manager, compared to previously getting “Feed back” from there Manager, peers and customers. • Before becoming a Manager everything was “Objective”. After becoming a Manager everything becomes “Subjective”. • Before becoming a Manger you always got a “Pat on the back” but know you as a Manger need to give your subordinates a “Pat on the back” and not receive a “Pat on the back” in return.

  9. Comparing a working Position and a Manager Position • As a Manger you need to create an environment for your own people to excel, and not go for those recognition your self. • Working class people are only “answerable” to one Manger, where as a Manager is “answerable” to the entire panel of Management.

  10. Do I Have What it Takes? • As Managers spent time on their job and realize how ill-prepared they are at their new responsibility, new doubts now shits from “Will I Like Management?” to “Will I be good at it?” • New Managers are now evaluated by many criteria and are responsible for both “short-term” and “long-term” objectives. • New Manager have to deal with “Human problems”, and help “Fix” them. • As time goes progress New Managers start to feel comfortable in their own “Skin”, as they see the advantage of gathering varies information from different sources. • With experience, Managers start to have faith in their judgment.

  11. Discovering Managerial Weaknesses • Managing is not simply doing more or less of the work they did as a Worker. • Showing signs of “Nervousness” is a sign of Managerial Weaknesses. • Doing the work of a worker and not able to delegate work is a sign of Managerial Weaknesses. • Managerial skills are “inborn” • Management is an art, not a science.

  12. Who am I become? • After the new Manager begin to feel comfortable on the job, having acquired some managerial skills and regained some self-confidence the managers start to discover things that they like about the job. • The new Managers influence on his/her subordinates, show the sign they can help people reach their desired goals. • New Mangers start to discover the creativity side of them. • New Managers grow to appreciate their work, as they feel satisfied for the improvements which they see by coaching and developing of his/her works job skill.

  13. Discovering New Sides of the Self • Some new Mangers start to discover that they do not have the desire effect on other. As they try to portray an image of how the job should be done. • New Mangers start to realize that “deep down” they have much to learn about the job at stack and how to delegate work to its people. • New Mangers discover the new sides of themselves that had never been expressed because they had been “untested”. • New Mangers start to learn how “Stressful and horrifying” management could be at times. • New Manager most often discover new sides of themselves in managing conflicts with subordinates.


  15. Discovering Managerial Strengths • By ninth month, most managers began to feel their own strengths and styles. e.g. good listeners, good at handling temperamental people. • Easier to learn weakness than their strengths.

  16. Managerial Style Three Characteristics of Managerial style: • Task oriented Vs People-oriented • Authoritative Vs Participative • Formal Vs Informal First months on the job, the managers showed a clear predilection for a more task-oriented and authoritative style. By the end of the year , they were not able to talk confidently about their styles.

  17. Managerial Character Managers were learning what it meant to be a manager. They were developing managerial character • As the year progressed, they improved the interpersonal judgment. • Firing employees, taught them to adopt a tough and unsentimental attitude.

  18. Managerial Character • They learned acting impulsively was wrong. • Patience, good listening and empathy were critical managerial tools • They learned to live with ambiguity for managing people.

  19. Managerial Character • At the end of their first year as a manager, on their personal growth, the new manager were pleasantly surprised by how much they had developed. • Becoming Mangers had given most of the new mangers a chance to discover inner strengths, the qualities of the managerial character.

  20. Conclusions of Chapter 6 • To be an effective manager, one must have a balanced view of his or her motivation, abilities and limitations. • From the challenges and hardships they encountered, the new mangers gained invaluable insight into who they were and what they were capable of. • Each still had to find managerial style that best suited him or her and work to shape the environment to meet their talents and needs.


  22. Introduction • Mostly the new managers looked forward to the promotion with excitement and optimism. • They were anxious about how much they would like and how well they would perform the new job? • Like many who have strong needs for achievement and personal growth, the managers actively welcomed the stresses brought by change and increased challenge as an opportunity for personal development. • As they soon discovered, however the stresses were greater and more debilitating than they had imagined. I never knew a promotion could be so painful.

  23. Causes Of Stress • Transformation • Increased Challenge • Strong needs for Achievement • Personal Development • More Responsibilities

  24. Sources of Stress • An early, major order of business was learning to cope with the stresses and intense emotions of becoming a manager. The two sources of Stress: • Stress of Transformation This type of stress began to subside as the managers progressed through the year. • Stress in Managerial job This type of stress would remain with the manager .

  25. Stress of Transformation • Most people find changing jobs is stressful, and report some anxiety and frustration. • Nicholson and West, found that” the most stressful job changes are those which involve an upward status move and no change of employer.” • The new manager wondered how, or if, they would ever master the new position. • As they gained insight into their new role and who they were, the transition became more stressful. One said,” once I knew what I had gotten myself into, I knew just how much trouble I was in.” • The transition to manager meant losing not only a sense of mastery and control, but also concrete feedback, instant gratification, recognition, and autonomy. • Finally the stresses of transformation begin to subside.

  26. Stress in The Managerial job • The stresses inherent in the managerial role remained. • These pressures were built into the managerial job and could exhaust and paralyze if not confronted. • To be effective managers, they had to learn how to cope with them and attendant emotions. • The managers had to attain the “ emotional competence”. • The managers had to learn to cope with four stresses: Role Strain, Negativity, Isolation, and the burden of leadership responsibility

  27. Role Strain • Sources of role strain built in managerial role: Overload, Ambiguity, Conflict. • The new managers had too much work to do in too little time with imperfect information. • They were responsible for “ too many things”. • They had to answer to too many people: subordinates, customers, superiors, and peers. • They had to learn to live with the pace, brevity, interruptions, and imperfection. • They had to learn how to handle their ignorance and how to weigh options and make trade-offs with limited and inadequate evidence.

  28. Negativity • A major managerial responsibility is dealing with the problem employee, so managing the problem employee inspired negative emotions in both the manager and the subordinate: fear, anxiety, frustration, and anger. • The managers also had to learn not to classify all subordinates who came to them with problem as problem employees.

  29. Isolation • As managers they found themselves isolated; “I am no longer one of the boys, no one asks me out for lunch. No one gossips with me. I am alone.” They had lost their nice-guy image simply because of their authority • A major challenge is coping with loneliness. • The managers had to learn to detach themselves from their subordinates.

  30. Burden of Leadership Responsibility • three theme stood out for management in interviews : Managing risk, being a role model, and having power over people’s lives. • Managing Risk: management is a job of managing risks, business risks, and people risks. Making important decisions under such imperfect conditions required confidence, strong will, and being comfortable with exercising power and influence.

  31. Burden of Leadership Responsibility cont.. • Being a role model: the managers actions touched people with lasting consequences. • The managers had to be careful in expressing anger, anxiety, and frustration, portraying maturity and professionalism and sense of serenity. They should be like a duck- on the surface calm and serene and underneath paddle like hell. The manager has got to model for the subordinate how to handle conflicts like a professional .

  32. Burden of Leadership Responsibility cont.. • having power over people’s lives: as the managers learned how much power and influence they had over their subordinates, work and their lives, their responsibilities weighed heavily. • The managers found two kinds of people decisions most difficult: • Taking disciplinary action of any sort. ( fire a subordinate) • balancing individual and group interests • ( asking for secretary)

  33. New Manager’s Personal Lives Family Self Job

  34. Conclusion of Chapter 7 • By the end of the year the new managers had not mastered their new role, but most felt they could make it, some with more confidence than others. • The managers were learning how to cope with situations beyond their control, a foundation for their future career. • Management is a tough job to do well even under the best circumstances because of the demands and personal commitment required.

  35. KUNAL MHASKE and ANUJ AGRAWAL Culture and Organizations Software of the Mind Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede He, She, (S)he

  36. Agenda • Assertiveness Vs Modesty • Gender and Gender roles • Masculinity –femininity as a dimension of societal culture • Gender Cultures • Masculinity – femininity according to Occupation • Masculinity – femininity in the family • Masculinity & femininity at school • Masculinity & femininity in the workplace • Masculinity , femininity, and the state • Masculinity , femininity, and ideas • The origin of Masculinity - femininity differences • The future of differences in Masculinity and femininity.

  37. Assertiveness versus Modesty Cont… • Cross – cultural misunderstanding is quite clear. • To an uninitiated American interviewer an uninitiated Dutch applicant comes across as a sucker. • To an uninitiated Dutch interviewer an uninitiated American applicant comes across as a braggart. • Dutch & American societies are reasonably similar of power distance & individualism. • But they differ considerably on a third dimension the ‘desirability of assertive behavior’ against the ‘desirability of modest behavior ‘i.e. • “Masculinity versus Femininity”

  38. Gender and Gender roles • Generally, Men taller and stronger but many women are taller and stronger than quite a few men. • Women have on average greater finger dexterity, fast metabolism – so they recover fast from fatigue but some men also excel in these respects. • Biological difference male & female • Culturally difference masculine and feminine • The role pattern demonstrated by the father and mother (and possibly other family members) has a profound impact on the mental software of the small child who is programmed with it for life. • Therefore, it is not surprising that one of the dimensions of national value systems is related to gender role models offered by parents

  39. Masculinity – femininity as a dimension of societal culture • 14 work goals in the IBM questionnaires • The analysis of the answers to the 14 work goals items produced 2 underlying dimensions: • One was individualism versus collectivism: • The importance of ‘personal time’, ‘freedom’, and ‘challenge’ stood for individualism • The importance of ‘training’, ‘physical conditions’, and ‘use of skills’ stood for collectivism

  40. Masculinity – femininity as a dimension of societal culture Cont… • Masculinity and femininity  Masculine pole: • Earnings • Recognition • Advancement • Challenge • Feminine pole” • Manager • Cooperation • Living area • Employment security

  41. Masculinity – femininity as a dimension of societal culture Cont… • Men attaching greater importance to, in particular, the work goals (1) and (3) and women to (5) and (6) • Masculinity Index (MAS) score was computed for each of the 50 countries and 3 regions in the IBM data. • Scores were achieved in a range from 0 for the most feminine to about 100 for the most masculine country by multiplying the factor scores by 20 and adding 50.2

  42. Masculinity – femininity as a dimension of societal culture Cont… • MAS values were computed not only by country but also separately for men and women within each country • In the most feminine countries, Sweden and Norway, there was no difference between the scores of the men and women, and both expressed equally tender, nurturing values. • In the most masculine countries, Japan and Austria, the men scored very tough but also the women scored fairly tough; nevertheless the gap between men’s values and women’s values was largest for these countries.

  43. Masculinity Index (MAS) values for 50 countries and 3 regions

  44. Masculinity – femininity as a dimension of societal culture Cont… • USA scores 62 on the masculinity index (rank 15) and the Netherlands score 14 (rank 51), so the two countries which appeared in the story at the beginning are really apart. • The champions of masculinity are first Japan 1 and some continental European countries: Austria 2, Italy 4/5, Switzerland 4/5, and West Germany 9/10.

  45. Gender Cultures • Like nationality, gender is an involuntary characteristic.  • The effect of both nationality and gender on our mental programming is largely unconscious. • Any country is likely to show cultural differences according to gender, these are again statistical rather than absolute: there is an overlap between the values of men and those of women so that any given value may be found both among men and among women, only with different frequency.

  46. Gender Cultures Cont… • The feminine culture is alien to most men, as the masculine culture is alien to most women. • We readily experience other cultures as wrong, ridiculous, or frightening, and such feelings can be detected between the gender within the same society. • The males in virtually all societies dominate in politics, in the community, and at the workplace; so the subcultures of politics, community affairs, and work relatively masculine. • The subcultures of the family and the school vary more from one society to another.

  47. Masculinity – femininity according to Occupation • Not surprisingly, the masculine occupations are the ones usually filled by men, and the feminine occupations are the ones usually filled by women. • Men from the IBM population in ‘feminine’ occupations held more ‘feminine’ values than women in ‘masculine’ occupations. • Within IBM 38 occupation could be divided into 6 groups from the most ‘masculine’ to the most ‘feminine’ as follows:

  48. Masculinity – femininity according to Occupation Cont… • Salesmen (professional and nonprofessional) • Professional workers ( engineers/scientists) • Skilled workers/technicians • Managers of all categories • Unskilled and semiskilled workers • Office workers • The salesman (rarely saleswomen) in this case were paid on commission, in a strongly competitive climate. • Scientists, engineers, technicians and skilled workers in IBM focus mostly on individual technical performance which calls for masculine values.

  49. Masculinity – femininity according to Occupation Cont.. • Managers deal with both technical and human problems, in roles with both technical and human problems, in roles with both assertive and nurturing elements. • Unskilled and semiskilled workers have no strong achievements to boast but they usually work in teams, so cooperation is important to them. • Office workers also have few achievements but their jobs tend to involve even more human contacts, also with outsiders.

  50. Masculinity – femininity in the family • Family is the place where the most people received their first cultural programming. • The family contains two unequal but complementary role pairs: parent-child and husband-wife. • RIGHT HALF • LEFT HALF • LOWER HALF • UPPER HALF • LOWER RIGHT-HAND QUADRANT: • UPPER RIGHT-HAND QUADRANT: • LOWER LEFT-HAND QUADRANT • UPPER LEFT-HAND QUADRANT