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Causes of the American Revolution. The Road to Independence Take out your spiral for Warm-up and notes. Proclamation Line of 1763 - Bellringer. 1) The Colonists were still fighting ______. 2) King George III of England states the colonists can not pass the ______ Mountains.

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Causes of the american revolution

Causes of the American Revolution

The Road to Independence

Take out your spiral for Warm-up and notes

Proclamation line of 1763 bellringer
Proclamation Line of 1763 - Bellringer

1) The Colonists were still fighting ______.

2) King George III of England states the colonists can not pass the ______ Mountains.

3) ______ were given the _____ River Valley.

4) The Colonists felt ______ about the Proclamation.

5) How would you feel if someone gave your property away?

Taxation without representation
“Taxation without Representation”

This was a slogan by James Otis used in the 13 colonies from 1763 – 1775

The colonists complained that taxes were forced on them without any colonial representation in Parliament

This violated the rights given to them in the Magna Carta (1215)

Reasons for taxes
Reasons for Taxes

Britain owed a large debt from the French and Indian War

Keeping troops in the colonies would raise that debt even higher

Wanted colonies to pay for part of that debt and to help with the cost of defense in the colonies

Loyalists vs patriots
Loyalists vs. Patriots


A strong unified British Empire is good for all

Colonists are British subjects and should obey British law

Taxes are due to French & Indian War which was fought to protect colonies

American colonies would be weak without Britain


People have rights government can’t take away, like property

Colonists don’t have voice in Parliament, so they can’t tax colonies

Many colonists fought in the French & Indian War (we’ve done our part)

British personnel are causing violence, riots, and death

Causes of the american revolution1
Causes of the American Revolution

Quartering Act, 1765

Sugar Act, 1764

To enforce the Proclamation Line

10,000 English soldiers stayed in the colonies

To save the King money the colonists had to house the soldiers in their homes or pay for them to be housed

To get the colonies to pay for the French and Indian War they used taxation

Tariffs on sugar, molasses and other products shipped to the colonies

“Taxation without Representation is Tyranny” – James Otis

Causes of the american revolution2
Causes of the American Revolution

Stamp Act, 1765

  • Every document had to have a paid royal stamp

  • Colonists had to pay in silver coins (hard to come by)

    • All Contracts

    • All Diplomas

    • All Wills

    • All Newspapers

    • All Legal Documents

Colonies responded by
Colonies Responded by…

refused to buy English goods

“No Taxation Without Representation”

bought goods from smugglers

(like John Hancock)

political cartoons, letters, pamphlets, poems

groups like the Sons of Liberty

Boycotting -

Protesting -

Resisting -

Publishing -

Secret Societies -

What are they doing
What are they doing?

Tar and Feathering

Forcing Tea down tax collectors throat

Caning (hitting with stick)

Who are they?

Who do you think created this cartoon?

Sons of liberty
Sons of Liberty

  • Sam Adams -

    • Leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty

  • Many members were lawyers, merchants, and craftspeople – the colonists most affected by the Stamp Act

  • They staged many protests

  • Not all were peaceful

Causes of the american revolution3
Causes of the American Revolution

Response from the Colonists

Townshend Acts, 1767

Boston Massacre, 1770

  • Suspended the New York Assembly

  • Tariffs on:

    • Glass

    • Paper

    • Paint

    • Lead

    • Tea

1,000 soldiers came to Boston because of the riots

Townsmen and soldiers yelled insults to each other

A fight broke out

Soldiers started shooting into the fight

5 townsmen died, including Crispus Attucks, first African American to die

Boston massacre 1770
Boston Massacre, 1770

Colonists started the fight

British soldiers were defending themselves

Samuel Adams (leader of The Sons of Liberty) named it the Boston Massacre

Soldiers were put on trial for murder of the colonists

John Adams (cousin) defended the soldiers and they were set free – Why did he defend them?

Boston massacre 17701
Boston Massacre, 1770

  • Identify purpose:

    • The cartoon portrays the redcoats as the aggressors and the colonists as innocent unarmed victims

  • Identify Emotion:

    • The cartoon portrays the redcoats as violent murderers who do not care about the lives of the colonists

  • Think Critically:

    • The cartoon does not show what caused the redcoats to begin firing or the actions of the colonists before the firing began

Writs of assistance
Writs of Assistance

  • Money raised from the Townshend Acts was intended to pay the British governors and other officials in the colonies.

  • To enforce the Acts, British officers used Writs of assistance, or search warrants, to enter homes or businesses to search for smuggled goods.

King George III

Committees of correspondence
Committees of Correspondence

Sam Adams urged the colonists to create these committees in 1772

Purpose – to stay informed of British actions abroad and continue to spread the seeds of rebellion

These groups exchanged letters on colonial affairs

These groups led to the creation of the 1st Continental Congress

Mercy otis warren
Mercy Otis Warren

Part of the Committee of Correspondence in Boston; created by Samuel Adams.

She wrote a series of pamphlets and satires against the British.

Wrote the 1st history of the American Revolutionary War, using notes from meetings and conversations.

She convinced many people to take up the Patriot cause.

Causes of the american revolution4
Causes of the American Revolution

Response from the Colonists

Tea Act, 1773

Boston Tea Party, 1773

Townshend Acts repealed in 1770 except…

Kept the tea tax to prove England still had the right to tax the colonists

1773 - Parliament then formerly gave the British East India Company control of all tea trade in America

Protests fueled by the Committees of Correspondence

Sons of Liberty in Boston was most famous

Resentment for monopolizing tea trade

Dressed as Natives they threw 342 chests of tea into the harbor

British officials wanted the men to be arrested

War is close
War is Close

  • After Boston Tea Party the Intolerable Acts are passed to punish the Massachusetts Colony

    • Closed the Boston Port

    • Banned Committees of Correspondence

    • Allowed troops to be housed anywhere they wanted

    • Appointed General Gage as governor of Massachusetts

  • All other colonies offered help to them

  • First Continental Congress is held in Philadelphia, PN (1774)

    • Banned all trade with England

    • Intolerable Acts repealed in the colonies

    • Each colony began training Minutemen, those who are ready at a minutes notice

Not quite ready for independence
Not Quite Ready for Independence

  • Although most delegates were not ready to declare independence from Britain, they were determined to uphold colonial rights.

  • The delegates agreed to meet again in 7 months, but by that time, fighting with Britain had begun.

The boycott doesn t work this time
The Boycott doesn’t work this time

  • The colonists hoped that the trade boycott would force Parliament to repeal the Intolerable Acts since it had worked with the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts.

  • This time, however, Britain stood firm.

Training for a fight
Training for a Fight

  • By the end of 1774, some colonists were preparing to fight.

  • Colonial troops continued to train, but they believed a fight with Britain would be short.

Patrick henry
Patrick Henry

Fiery patriot and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses.

Although most colonists believed any fight with Britain would be short, Henry thought that a show of force would make Britain change its policies.

In March 1775, he is best known for his moving speech in front of the House of Burgesses, in which he ended with the phrase: “Give me liberty or give me death!”

Patrick henry1
Patrick Henry

“Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”

~Patrick Henry, March 23, 1775

Virginia House of Burgesses

What? Uh?........ what are arms?

What is a munitions dump?

The Barrett Farm

The weapons were buried in the field here and disguised a newly planted crop.

Spies on both sides
Spies on both sides

  • Meanwhile, spies were busy on both sides. General Gage found out that the Massachusetts militia was storing arms and ammunition in Concord, 20 miles from Boston.


  • He also heard that Sam Adams and John Hancock were in Lexington.

  • On the night of April 18, 1775, Gage ordered his troops to arrest Adams and Hancock and to destroy the supplies in Concord.

One if by land two if by sea
“One if by land, Two if by sea”

  • The Sons of Liberty had prepared for this moment. Paul Revere had designed a system of signals to alert colonists about British troop movements.

  • If one lantern burned in the Old North Church steeple, they were coming by land; if two, they were coming by sea.

Paul revere s ride
Paul Revere’s Ride

  • When the British moved, so did Revere and a 2nd messenger, William Dawes.

  • They galloped all night long spreading the news that the redcoats were coming.

The shot heard around the world
The Shot Heard Around the World

Could either the Colonists or British soldiers have stopped the war at this point? How or Why?

At dawn, 700 British troops reached Lexington and faced down 70 militiamen who refused to drop their muskets when ordered.

No one knows who fired first, but within a few minutes, 8 militiamen are killed and British soldiers move on to Concord to destroy military supplies

4,000 minutemen and militiamen arrive first battle of the Revolutionary War